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Tuesday, October 22, 2019
2019 - 12 Best Electric Cars with the Longest Driving Range - S Curve And EV Market - Available EV Models, Prices, Leasing, Features, Rebates, Charging Stations, Money Saved - Benefits Of Electric Vehicles - List Of Best Selling Electric Cars

This article describes electric vehicles, their history, benefits and much more. You will learn what an S curve is, plus how it applies to electric vehicles. The most current information about electric cars for this year is supplied with a global focus, including a list of those with the longest driving range, prices, leasing information, features, rebates, charging stations, money saved, and more. A list of best selling electric vehicles is also offered for your review. This article will take someone from knowing nothing about electric vehicles, to them knowing much more than the average politician or car dealer/salesperson, around electric cars.

If you want to know more in depth information about electric cars, then this article is for you. If you don't like in depth information, skip this article and rely on mass media surface shallow 'skimming', which keeps most of the population ignorant and unaware of what is really going on in this age of transformation. 


It is not if, but when the S curve takes hold for electric vehicles of all kinds, including delivery vehicles, 18 wheelers, cargo vans, and passenger vehicles. When electric cars, (or some other new technology is adopted quickly by a willing and eager public, the S curve dynamics take hold. Below you can see what the S curve looks like for other new technologies, such as the refrigerator, computer, cellphone, and color TV. 

Huge car companies or smart startups would be smart to try and get ahead of this curve and take part in it, as Tesla is doing right now for example. The Chevrolet Volt or Bolt has a potential for taking off, if the price, features and technology are balanced according to consumer demand. If range is the thing consumers are looking for, then the Bolt, Volt and Tesla Model 3 should take off on the S Curve. 

What is very noticeable is that only Tesla is in the top ten ranking of sales within the electric car market place globally. None of the 'big 3' US based auto makers are in the top rankings for sales of electric cars. But this is not surprising, since these companies historically have conspired together to block electric vehicles, and conspired to get rid of electric trolley mass transit all across the US.

Why would the Big 3 auto makers now turn around and lead the electric car revolution, when historically, they have been blocking this technology since 100 years ago?


February 24 -- There are more than one billion cars on the road worldwide today, and only one tenth of one percent of them have a plug. OPEC contends that even in the year 2040, EVs will make up just one percent. But don't be so sure. By 2020, some electric cars and SUVs will be faster, safer, cheaper, and more convenient than their gasoline counterparts. What if people just stop buying oil? In the first episode of our animated series, Sooner Than You Think, Bloomberg's Tom Randall does the math on when oil markets might be headed for the big crash.  

Electric Cars Could Wreak Havoc on Oil Markets Within a Decade
VIDEO: 3 min.


A Complete Guide To Driving Electric And Hybrid Cars In The 21st Century


2019 - 8 Best Electric Cars - (with the Longest Driving Range)
VIDEO: 3 min

10 Best Electric Cars to Buy in 2019-2020 (Range and Price Comparison)
VIDEO: 12 min.


Going electric? Here’s our guide to buying a used Nissan Leaf

Should I Buy A Used Nissan LEAF -- Then Replace The Battery?
VIDEO: 9 min

Transport Evolved With early used Nissan LEAFs now down into the $5,000 territory, we're answering a regular question from readers: does it make sense to buy an early 2011-2012 LEAF cheap -- and then replace the battery? The answer depends on what your preferences are and what your requirements are.


Tesla Model 3 vs Chevy Bolt - An opinion from someone who owns BOTH
VIDEO: 14 min

It is one thing to build a long range electric vehicle. It is quite another to put the educational marketing effort behind it to actually inform people about what this means and market it effectively, both on TV and in mass media of other kinds.

Chevrolet is a big company, but it has a 'culture' that is still in the fossil age, pushing big fossil fuel trucks and inefficient gas guzzling cars as the foundation of where it makes most of it's profits.

Compare Chevrolet to Tesla, which has a huge electric car charging infrastructure built up, a huge all electric car manufacturing foundation and a TOTAL commitment to a clean solar energy powered future, via it's division of solar powered roofs company.

It is quite possible today, to purchase a long range electric vehicle like the Tesla, and then charge it with nothing other than solar power or wind power, via a free market utility choice offering 100 percent renewable energy. It is easy in California to switch utility companies to someone like Sonoma Clean Power, and then sign up for their 100 percent renewable energy program.

California offers deregulated power company choices, where a consumer can pick and choose their energy provider.  Other states like Washington, force people to stick with obsolete monopolistic power companies who don't even offer a 100 percent renewable energy option, and consumers cannot pick and choose, nor have the freedom to change energy providers.


Are Electric Cars Worse For The Environment? Myth Busted
VIDEO:  13 min

Engineering Explained Are Electric Cars Greener Than Gasoline Powered Cars? The Facts About Electric Cars and The Environment - Sponsored by FE 

Electric cars are touted as a solution for reducing emissions and improving the environmental impacts of transportation, but are electric cars actually any better for the environment than gasoline cars? This video looks to answer three main questions: 1) Doesn't EV battery production cause a lot of emissions? 2) Don't electric cars get their power from fossil fuels? 3) Isn't lithium mining terrible for the environment?" 

Things you can do to improve on what is reported above; 

Use buses, bikes, trains and mass transport more, in addition to walking. 

Share your electric car use via ride sharing, which doubles, triples or quadruples the environmental benefit shown above.

What is not discussed in video, is that electric car owners drive many less miles, which means their environmental 'load' is much smaller, just due to this alone.

What is not discussed in video, is that electric car owners often switch to 100 percent green renewable power for their energy source at home or work, and then plug in to recharge their vehicle via this energy, instead of dirty coal, nuclear or gas. Those numbers quoted change radically via this choice. When car manufacturers use clean renewable energy to build cars, again things change.

Sonoma County Clean Power - One Of First In Nation To Offer 100% Zero Carbon, Zero Nuclear Local Energy Option To Customers, Pays Up To Retail Prices To Buy All Solar, Wind Energy From Home Owners

What is also not discussed in video is that EV's are much cleaner and do not pollute the environment, via dripping toxic fluids, toxic gases and oozing blackness coming out of every orifice or crack. 

What is it worth to have a car that you can park or drive anywhere, and it does not leave a trail of toxic, poison behind it? 

What is not discussed in the video above is the aspect of noise, because EV's are so QUIET. Does it bother you when loud motorcycles or vehicles drive by? Notice that they are always dirty, toxic and loud fossil fuel powered vehicles. EV's don't make noise, so you will not notice them. What is that worth? 

What is not discussed in the above video is the efficiency of EV's, which is much higher than fossil fuel vehicles, along with much less maintenance cost. What is that worth? 

Go deeper

100 Ways That Electric Cars Are Better And Cheaper Than Fossil Fuel Cars, 3 Stages To Moving Past Fossil Fuel Addiction, Plus Disrupting Oil industry, 100 Percent EV Electric Vehicle Future By 2030


What Happens To Old EV Batteries? 
VIDEO:  5 min


Wikipedia; "

Tesla Model S charging at a Supercharger.

Nissan Leaf, as of January 2018, has sold over 300,000 units worldwide. [1]

An electric car is a plug-in electric automobile that is propelled by one or more electric motors, using energy typically stored in rechargeable batteries.

Since 2008, a renaissance in electric vehicle manufacturing occurred due to advances in batteries, concerns about increasing oil prices, and the desire to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.[2][3] Several national and local governments have established tax credits, subsidies, and other incentives to promote the introduction and now adoption in the mass market of new electric vehicles depending on battery size and their all-electric range.[citation needed] The current maximum tax credit allowed by the US Government is $7,500 per car.[4] Compared with cars with internal combustion (IC) engines, electric cars are quieter and have no tailpipe emissions, and in most places, with a few exceptions, lower emissions in general.[5]

Charging an electric car can be done at a variety of charging stations, these charging stations can be installed in both houses and public areas.[6] The two best selling electric vehicles, the Nissan Leaf, and the Tesla Model S, have ranges reaching 151 miles (243 km) and, 335 miles (539 km) respectively.[7][8]

As of June 2017, there are over 2 million electric cars in use around the world.[9] The Nissan Leaf is the best-selling highway-capable electric car, with over 300,000 units sold globally by January 2018.[10] Ranking second is the Tesla Model S with almost 213,000 units sold worldwide through December 2017.[11]


NASA's Lunar Roving Vehicles were battery-driven

Electric cars are a variety of electric vehicle (EV). The term "electric vehicle" refers to any vehicle that uses electric motors for propulsion, while "electric car" generally refers to highway-capable automobiles powered by electricity. Low-speed electric vehicles, classified as neighborhood electric vehicles (NEVs) in the United States,[12] and as electric motorised quadricycles in Europe,[13] are plug-in electric-powered microcars or city cars with limitations in terms of weight, power and maximum speed that are allowed to travel on public roads and city streets up to a certain posted speed limit, which varies by country.

While an electric car's power source is not explicitly an on-board battery, electric cars with motors powered by other energy sources are generally referred to by a different name. An electric car carrying solar panels to power it is a solar car, and an electric car powered by a gasoline generator is a form of hybrid car. Thus, an electric car that derives its power from an on-board battery pack is a form of battery electric vehicle (BEV). Most often, the term "electric car" is used to refer to battery electric vehicles.

Main article: History of the electric vehicle

Early electric car, built by Thomas Parker, photo from 1895[14]

The General Motors EV1, one of the cars introduced due to the California Air Resources Boardmandate, had a range of 160 mi (260 km) with NiMH batteries in 1999

The Tesla Roadster helped inspire the modern generation of electric vehicles.

In 1884, over 20 years before the Ford Model T, Thomas Parker built the first practical production electric car in London in 1884, using his own specially designed high-capacity rechargeable batteries.[15][16][17] The Flocken Elektrowagen of 1888 was designed by German inventor Andreas Flocken.[18] Electric cars were among the preferred methods for automobile propulsion in the late 19th century and early 20th century, providing a level of comfort and ease of operation that could not be achieved by the gasoline cars of the time.[19] The electric vehicle stock peaked at approximately 30,000 vehicles at the turn of the 20th century.[20]

In 1897, electric cars found their first commercial use in the USA. Based on the design of the Electrobat II, a fleet of twelve hansom cabs and one brougham were used in New York City as part of a project funded in part by the Electric Storage Battery Company of Philadelphia.[21] During the 20th century, the main manufacturers of electric vehicles in the US were Anthony Electric, Baker, Columbia, Anderson, Edison, Riker, Milburn, Bailey Electric and others. Unlike gasoline-powered vehicles, the electric ones were less fast and less noisy, and did not require gear changes.[22]

Advances in internal combustion engines in the first decade of the 20th century lessened the relative advantages of the electric car. The greater range of gasoline cars, and their much quicker refueling times, made them more popular and encouraged a rapid expansion of petroleum infrastructure, making gasoline easy to find, but what proved decisive was the introduction in 1912 of the electric starter motor which replaced other, often laborious, methods of starting the ICE, such as hand-cranking.

Six electric cars held the land speed record.[23] The last of them was the rocket-shaped La Jamais Contente, driven by Camille Jenatzy, which broke the 100 km/h (62 mph) speed barrier by reaching a top speed of 105.88 km/h (65.79 mph) on 29 April 1899.

In the early 1990s, the California Air Resources Board (CARB) began a push for more fuel-efficient, lower-emissions vehicles, with the ultimate goal being a move to zero-emissions vehicles such as electric vehicles.[2][24] In response, automakers developed electric models, including the Chrysler TEVan, Ford Ranger EV pickup truck, GM EV1, and S10 EV pickup, Honda EV Plus hatchback, Nissan Altra EV miniwagon, and Toyota RAV4 EV. Both US Electricar and Solectria produced 3-phase AC Geo-bodied electric cars with the support of GM, Hughes, and Delco. These early cars were eventually withdrawn from the U.S. market.[25]

California electric automaker Tesla Motors began development in 2004 on what would become the Tesla Roadster (2008), which was first delivered to customers in 2008. The Roadster was the first highway legal serial production all-electric car to use lithium-ion battery cells, and the first production all-electric car to travel more than 320 km (200 miles) per charge.[26]

Tesla global sales passed 250,000 units in September 2017.[27][28] The Renault–Nissan–Mitsubishi Alliance achieved the milestone of 500,000 units electric vehicles sold in October 2017.[29] Tesla sold its 200,000th Model S in the fourth quarter of 2017.[11] Global Leaf sales passed 300,000 units in January 2018, keeping its record as the world's top selling plug-in electric car ever.[10]

Many countries have set goals to ban the sales of gasoline and diesel powered vehicles in the future, notably; Norway by 2025, India by 2030, Germany by 2030, France by 2040, and Britain by 2040, or 2050.[30][31][32]

Total cost of ownership

As of 2018, electric cars are less expensive to run than comparable internal combustion engine vehicles due to the lower cost of repairs and energy.[33]

The Chinese auto manufacturer BYD calculated on its website in 2015 that a BYD e6 taxi over five years would give a saving of about $74,000 over the equivalent petrol consumption.[36]

Purchase cost

According to a 2010 survey, around three quarters of American and British car buyers have or would consider buying an electric car, but they are unwilling to pay more for an electric car.[38] Several national and local governments have established tax credits, subsidies, and other incentives to reduce the net purchase price of electric cars and other plug-ins.[39][40][41][42]

Car manufacturers choose different strategies for EVs. For low production, converting existing platforms is the cheapest as development cost is low. For higher production, a dedicated platform may be preferred to optimize design.[43]

Almost 80% of electric vehicles in the U.S. are leased, while the lease rate for the country's entire fleet is about 30%.[44]

Tesla Motors uses laptop-size cells for a cost of about $200 per kilowatt hour.[45][46][47]

Operating cost

According to a study done in 2018, the average operating cost of an electric vehicle in the United States is $485 per year, as opposed to a Internal combustion engines is $1,117 per year.[48]

Environmental aspects
Main article: Environmental aspects of the electric car

Electric cars have several benefits over conventional internal combustion engine automobiles, including a significant reduction of local air pollution, especially in cities, as they do not emit harmful tailpipe pollutants such as particulates (soot), volatile organic compounds, hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, ozone, lead, and various oxides of nitrogen.[49][50][51]

The amount of carbon dioxide emitted depends on the emission intensity of the power sources used to charge the vehicle, the efficiency of the said vehicle and the energy wasted in the charging process, typically, although not always, being better than an ICE car. For mains electricity the emission intensity varies significantly per country and within a particular country, and on the demand, the availability of renewable sources and the efficiency of the fossil fuel-based generation used at a given time.[52][53][54]

Acceleration and drivetrain design

Rimac Concept One, electric supercar, since 2013. 0 to 100 km/h (62 mph) in 2.5 seconds, 1224 hp[55]

Electric motors can provide high power-to-weight ratios, and batteries can be designed to supply the large currents to support these motors. Electric motors have very flat torque curves down to zero speed. For simplicity and reliability, many electric cars use fixed-ratio gearboxes and have no clutch.

Although some electric vehicles have very small motors, 15 kW (20 hp) or less and therefore have modest acceleration, many electric cars have large motors and brisk acceleration. In addition, the relatively constant torque of an electric motor, even at very low speeds tends to increase the acceleration performance of an electric vehicle relative to that of the same rated motor power internal combustion engine.

Electric vehicles can also use a direct motor-to-wheel configuration which increases the amount of available power. Having multiple motors connected directly to the wheels allows for each of the wheels to be used for both propulsion and as braking systems, thereby increasing traction.[56][57][58] When not fitted with an axle, differential, or transmission, electric vehicles have less drivetrain rotational inertia.

For example, the Venturi Fetish delivers supercar acceleration despite a relatively modest 220 kW (300 hp), and top speed of around 160 km/h (100 mph). Some DC-motor-equipped drag racer EVs have simple two-speed manual transmissions to improve top speed.[59] The Tesla Roadster (2008) 2.5 Sport can accelerate from 0 to 97 km/h (0 to 60 mph) in 3.7 seconds with a motor rated at 215 kW (288 hp).[60] Tesla Model S P100D (Performance / 100kWh / 4-wheel drive) is capable of 2.28 seconds for 0–60 mph at a price of $140,000 [1].

As of May 2017, the P100D is the second fastest production car ever built, slower by a mere 0.08 only to a $847,975 Porsche 918 Spyder.[61] The Wrightspeed X1 prototype created by Wrightspeed Inc was in 2009 the worlds fastest street legal electric car to accelerate from 0 to 97 km/h (0 to 60 mph), which it does in 2.9 seconds.[62][63] The electric supercar Rimac Concept One can go from 0–100 km/h (0–62 mph) in 2.8 seconds using 811 kW (1,088 hp).

Energy efficiency
Main article: Electric car energy efficiency

Internal combustion engines have thermodynamic limits on efficiency, expressed as fraction of energy used to propel the vehicle compared to energy produced by burning fuel. Gasoline engines effectively use only 15% of the fuel energy content to move the vehicle or to power accessories, and diesel engines can reach on-board efficiency of 20%, while electric vehicles have on-board efficiency of over 90%, when counted against stored chemical energy, or around 80%, when counted against required energy to recharge.[64]

Electric motors are more efficient than internal combustion engines in converting stored energy into driving a vehicle. Electric cars do not idle. Regenerative braking can recover as much as one fifth of the energy normally lost during braking.[2][64]

Production and conversion electric cars typically use 10 to 23 kW·h/100 km (0.17 to 0.37 kW·h/mi).[65][66] Approximately 20% of this power consumption is due to inefficiencies in charging the batteries. Tesla Motors indicates that the vehicle efficiency (including charging inefficiencies) of their lithium-ion battery powered vehicle is 12.7 kW·h/100 km (0.21 kW·h/mi) and the well-to-wheels efficiency (assuming the electricity is generated from natural gas) is 24.4 kW·h/100 km (0.39 kW·h/mi).[67]

Cabin heating and cooling

Electric vehicles generate very little waste heat. Supplemental heat may have to be used to heat the interior of the vehicle if heat generated from battery charging/discharging cannot be used to heat the interior. While heating can be provided with an electric resistance heater, higher efficiency and integral cooling can be obtained with a reversible heat pump. Positive Temperature Coefficient (PTC) junction cooling[68] is also attractive for its simplicity — this kind of system is used for example in the Tesla Roadster (2008).

To avoid draining the battery and thus reducing the range, some models allow the cabin to be heated while the car is plugged in. For example, the Nissan Leaf, the Mitsubishi i-MiEV and the Tesla Model S can be pre-heated while the vehicle is plugged in.[69][70][71]

Some electric cars, for example the Citro├źn Berlingo Electrique, use an auxiliary heating system (for example gasoline-fueled units manufactured by Webasto or Ebersp├Ącher) but sacrifice "green" and "Zero emissions" credentials. Cabin cooling can be augmented with solar power, or by automatically allowing outside air to flow through the car when parked. Two models of the 2010 Toyota Prius include this feature as an option.[72]


Side impact test of a Tesla Model X

The safety issues of BEVs are largely dealt with by the international standard ISO 6469. This document is divided in three parts dealing with specific issues:
On-board electrical energy storage, i.e. the battery
Functional safety means and protection against failures
Protection of persons against electrical hazards.

Risk of fire
Main article: plug-in electric vehicle fire incidents

Like their Gasoline counterparts, electric vehicle batteries can catch fire after a crash or mechanical failure.[73] Plug-in electric vehicle fire incidents have occurred, albeit less have occurred per mile than traditional vehicles, so electric vehicles are safer.[74]

The first modern crash-related fire was reported in China in May 2012, after a high-speed car crashed into a BYD e6 taxi in Shenzhen.[75] The second reported incident occurred in the United States on October 1, 2013, when a Tesla Model S caught fire over ten minutes after the electric car hit metal debris on a highway in Kent, Washington state, and the debris punctured one of 16 modules within the battery pack.[76][77] A second reported fire occurred on October 18, 2013 in Merida, Mexico. In this case the vehicle was being driven at high speed through a roundabout and crashed through a wall and into a tree. The fire broke out many minutes after the driver exited the vehicle. On November 6, 2013, a Tesla Model S being driven on Interstate 24 near Murfreesboro, Tennessee caught fire after it struck a tow hitch on the roadway, causing damage beneath the vehicle.[78]

In the United States, General Motors ran in several cities a training program for firefighters and first responders to demonstrate the sequence of tasks required to safely disable the Chevrolet Volt’s powertrain and its 12 volt electrical system, which controls its high-voltage components, and then proceed to extricate injured occupants. The Volt's high-voltage system is designed to shut down automatically in the event of an airbag deployment, and to detect a loss of communication from an airbag control module.[79][80]

GM also made available an Emergency Response Guide for the 2011 Volt for use by emergency responders. The guide also describes methods of disabling the high voltage system and identifies cut zone information.[81] Nissan also published a guide for first responders that details procedures for handling a damaged 2011 Leaf at the scene of an accident, including a manual high-voltage system shutdown, rather than the automatic process built-in the car's safety systems.[82][83]

Vehicle safety

Great effort is taken to keep the mass of an electric vehicle as low as possible to improve its range and endurance. However, the weight and bulk of the batteries themselves usually makes an EV heavier than a comparable gasoline vehicle, reducing range and leading to longer braking distances. However, in a collision, the occupants of a heavy vehicle will, on average, suffer fewer and less serious injuries than the occupants of a lighter vehicle; therefore, the additional weight brings safety benefits[84] despite having a negative effect on the car's performance.[85] They also use up interior space if packaged ineffectively.

If stored under the passenger cell, not only is this not the case, they also lower the vehicles's center of gravity, increasing driving stability, thereby lowering the risk of an accident through loss of control. An accident in a 2,000 lb (900 kg) vehicle will on average cause about 50% more injuries to its occupants than a 3,000 lb (1,400 kg) vehicle.[86]

The Insurance Institute for Highway Safety in America had condemned the use of low speed vehicles and "mini trucks," referred to as neighborhood electric vehicles (NEVs) when powered by electric motors, on public roads.[90] Mindful of this, several companies (Tesla Motors, BMW, Uniti) have succeeded in keeping the body light, while making it very strong.[91]

Hazard to pedestrians
See also: electric vehicle warning sounds

At low speeds, electric cars produced less roadway noise as compared to vehicles propelled by internal combustion engines. Blind people or the visually impairedconsider the noise of combustion engines a helpful aid while crossing streets, hence electric cars and hybrids could pose an unexpected hazard.[92][93] Tests have shown that this is a valid concern, as vehicles operating in electric mode can be particularly hard to hear below 20 mph (30 km/h) for all types of road users and not only the visually impaired. At higher speeds, the sound created by tire friction and the air displaced by the vehicle start to make sufficient audible noise.[93]

The Government of Japan, the U.S. Congress, and the European Parliament passed legislation to regulate the minimum level of sound for hybrids and plug-in electric vehicles when operating in electric mode, so that blind people and other pedestrians and cyclists can hear them coming and detect from which direction they are approaching.[93][94][95][96] The Nissan Leaf was the first electric car to use Nissan's Vehicle Sound for Pedestrians system, which includes one sound for forward motion and another for reverse.[97][98] As of January 2014, most of the hybrids and plug-in electric and hybrids available in the United States, Japan and Europe make warning noises using a speaker system. The Tesla Model S is one of the few electric cars without warning sounds, because Tesla Motors will wait until regulations are enacted.[99] Volkswagen and BMW also decided to add artificial sounds to their electric drive cars only when required by regulation.[100]

Several anti-noise and electric car advocates have opposed the introduction of artificial sounds as warning for pedestrians, as they argue that the proposed system will only increase noise pollution.[citation needed]. Added to this, such an introduction is based on vehicle type and not actual noise level, a concern regarding ICE vehicles which themselves are becoming quieter.


Presently most EV manufacturers do their best to emulate the driving experience as closely as possible to that of a car with a conventional automatic transmission that motorists in some countries are familiar with. Most models therefore have a PRNDL selector traditionally found in cars with automatic transmission despite the underlying mechanical differences. Push buttons are the easiest to implement as all modes are implemented through software on the vehicle's controller.

Even though the motor may be permanently connected to the wheels through a fixed-ratio gear and no parking pawl may be present the modes "P" and "N" will still be provided on the selector. In this case the motor is disabled in "N" and an electrically actuated hand brake provides the "P" mode.

In some cars the motor will spin slowly to provide a small amount of creep in "D", similar to a traditional automatic.[101]

When the foot is lifted from the accelerator of an ICE, engine braking causes the car to slow. An EV would coast under these conditions, but applying mild regenerative braking instead provides a more familiar response and recharges the battery somewhat. Selecting the L mode will increase this effect for sustained downhill driving, analogous to selecting a lower gear. These features also reduce the use of the conventional brakes, significantly reducing wear and tear and maintenance costs as well as improving vehicle range.


Prototypes of 50 watt-hour/kilogram lithium-ion polymer battery. Newer lithium-ion cells can provide up to 130 W·h/kg and last through thousands of charging cycles
Main article: electric vehicle battery

While most current highway-speed electric vehicle designs focus on lithium-ion and other lithium-based variants a variety of alternative batteries can also be used. Lithium-based batteries are often chosen for their high power and energy density but have a limited shelf life and cycle lifetime which can significantly increase the running costs of the vehicle. Variants such as Lithium iron phosphate and Lithium-titanate attempt to solve the durability issues of traditional lithium-ion batteries.

Other battery types include lead acid batteries which are still the most used form of power for most of the electric vehicles used today. The initial construction costs are significantly lower than for other battery types, but the power to weight ratio is poorer than other designs,[102] Nickel metal hydride (NiMH) which are somewhat heavier and less efficient than lithium ion, but also cheaper. Several other battery chemistries are in development such as zinc-air battery which could be much lighter, and liquid batteries that might be rapidly refilled, rather than recharged, are also under development.

Further information: List of electric cars currently available
External image List of ranges for electric cars in Norway as of 2014

The range of an electric car depends on the number and type of batteries used. The weight and type of vehicle, performance demands of the driver, and the weather also have an impact just as they do on the range of internal combustion vehicles.[103]

Comparison of EPA-rated range for model year2016 and 2017 electric cars rated up until July 2017. Tesla vehicles shown correspond to the variants with the longest and shortest range for each model[104][105]

The range of current production electric vehicles ranges anywhere from 62 mi (100 km) (Renault Twizy) to 335 mi (540 km) (Tesla Model S 100D)[106]

Electric cars are virtually universally fitted with an expected range display. This may take into account many factors, including battery charge, the recent average power use, the ambient temperature, driving style, air conditioning system, route topography etc. to come up with an estimated driving range. However, since factors can vary over the route, the estimate can vary from the actual achieved range. The display allows the driver able to make informed choices about driving speed and whether to, perhaps briefly, stop at a charging point en route to ensure that they have enough charge that they arrive at their destination without unexpected delay. Some roadside assistance organizations offer charge trucks to reload empty electric cars, in case of emergency.[107]

A study in 2016 stated that 87% of US vehicle-days can be met by current affordable electric cars.[108][109]


Electric cars are typically charged overnight from a charging station installed in the owner's house, or from faster charging stations found in businesses and public areas.[110]

Within each major region of the world, electric car charging stations are essentially universal across car and charger brands, and simply plugging in a charger into an electric car will charge the car at the fastest rate that both car and charger can support. A notable exception are the Tesla line of cars, which use their own in-house chargers. Tesla cars can use standard charging equipment but require an adapter to do so.

Some companies have been experimenting with battery swapping to significantly speed of charging times.[111]

Panoramic view of Tesla supercharger rapid charging station in Tejon Ranch, California

BYD e6 taxi. Recharging in 15 Minutes to 80 percent

Hybrid Vehicles
Further information: Hybrid vehicle

The BMW i3 has an optional gasoline-powered range extender engine

Some Electric Vehicles have built in generators, these are considered a type of hybrid vehicle.

Main article: rechargeable battery § Lifespan and cycle stability

Battery life should be considered when calculating the extended cost of ownership. The rate at which they expire depends on the type of battery and how they are used, as regularly over-charging batteries may lead to degradation of the range. Lithium-ion batteries degrade faster when stored at higher temperatures, when they are rapidly charged, and when they are fully charged. Many users set their cars to charge to 80% for their daily charging; which is usually enough for daily mileage, only charging them to 100% for longer trips.

Nissan stated in 2015 that thus far only 0.01 percent of batteries had to be replaced because of failures or problems and then only because of externally inflicted damage. There are few vehicles that have already covered more than 200,000 km (124,274 mi) anyway. These have no problems with the battery.[112]

Autonomous park-and-charge

Volkswagen, in collaboration with six partners, is developing V-Charge – an EU research project that is focused on automating the parking and charging of electric vehicles. The objective of this project is to develop a smart car system that allows for autonomous driving in designated areas (e.g. valet parking, park and ride) and can offer advanced driver support in urban environments.[113] Tesla has shown interest in making an arm that automatically charges their vehicles.[114]

Lithium availability

The Salar de Uyuni in Bolivia is one of the largest known lithium reserves in the world[115][116]
See also: rare-earth metals availability and supply security

Many electric cars use a lithium-ion battery and an electric motor which uses rare-earth elements. The demand for lithium, heavy metals, and other specific elements (such as neodymium, boron and cobalt) required for the batteries and powertrain is expected to grow significantly due to the future sales increase of plug-in electric vehicles in the mid and long term.[117][118]

Some of the largest world reserves of lithium and other rare metals are located in countries with strong resource nationalism, unstable governments or hostility to U.S. interests, raising concerns about the risk of replacing dependence on foreign oil with a new dependence on hostile countries to supply strategic materials.[115][117][118][119] It is estimated that there are sufficient lithium reserves to power 4 billion electric cars.[120][121]

Other methods of energy storage

Experimental supercapacitors and flywheel energy storage devices offer comparable storage capacity, faster charging, and lower volatility. They have the potential to overtake batteries as the preferred rechargeable storage for EVs.[122][123] The FIAincluded their use in its sporting regulations of energy systems for Formula One race vehicles in 2007 (for supercapacitors) and 2009 (for flywheel energy storage devices).

Solar cars
Main article: solar vehicle

Solar cars are electric vehicles powered completely or significantly by direct solar energy, usually, through photovoltaic (PV) cells contained in solar panels that convert the sun's energy directly into electric energy.

Electric Vehicle Charging Patents

Qualcomm, Hyundai, Ford, and Mitsubishi are the top patent holders of the close to 800 electric vehicle charging patents filed between 2014 and 2017[124]. A majority of patents on electric vehicle charging were filed in Japan between 2014 and 2017. It is followed by the US and then by China.[125]
Charging station

Charging station at Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. This station is run by Petrobrasand uses solar energy
Main article: charging station

Battery Electric Vehicles are most commonly and conveniently charged from the power grid overnight at home, without the inconvenience of having to go to a filling station. Charging can also be done using a street, garage or shop charging station. The electricity on the grid is in turn generated from a variety of sources; such as coal, hydroelectricity, nuclear and others. Power sources such as photovoltaic solar cell panels, micro hydro or wind may also be used and are promoted because of concerns regarding global warming.

More electrical power to the car reduces charging time. A normal household outlet is between 1.5 kW (in the US, Canada, Japan, and other countries with 110 volt supply) to 3 kW (in countries with 230 V supply).

A charging station reserved for two cars in a supermarket in Lagos, Portugal

As part of its commitment to environmental sustainability, the Dutch government initiated a plan to establish over 200 recharging stations for electric vehicles across the country by 2015. The rollout was undertaken by Switzerland-based power and automation company ABB and Dutch startup Fastned, and aims to provide at least one station every 50 kilometres (31 miles) for the Netherlands' 16 million residents.[126]

There are several types of charging machines. The Japanese-developed CHAdeMO standard is favored by Nissan, Mitsubishi, and Toyota, while the Society of Automotive Engineers’ (SAE) International J1772 Combo standard is backed by GM, Ford, Volkswagen, and BMW. Both are direct-current quick-charging systems designed to charge the battery of an electric vehicle to 80 percent in approximately 20 minutes, but the two systems are incompatible. Unless the two companies cooperate, experts have warned that the momentum of the electric vehicle market will be restricted.[127][128] Richard Martin, editorial director for clean technology marketing and consultant firm Navigant Research, stated:

Fast charging, however and whenever it gets built out, is going to be key for the development of a mainstream market for plug-in electric vehicles. The broader conflict between the CHAdeMO and SAE Combo connectors, we see that as a hindrance to the market over the next several years that needs to be worked out.[128]

Research continues on ways of reducing the charging times for electric cars. The BMW i3 for example, can charge 0–80% of the battery in under 30 minutes in rapid charging mode.[129] The superchargers developed by Tesla Motors provided up to 130 kW of charging, allowing a 50% charge in 20 minutes. Considering the size of the battery, that translated to approx. 212 km of range.[citation needed]

Most electric cars have used conductive coupling to supply electricity for recharging after the California Air Resources Board settled on the SAE J1772-2001 standard[130] as the charging interface for electric vehicles in California in June 2001.[131] In Europe, the ACEA has decided to use the Type 2 connector from the range of IEC_62196 plug types for conductive charging of electric vehicles in the European Union as the Type 1 connector (SAE J1772-2009) does not provide for three-phase charging.[132]

Another approach is inductive charging using a non-conducting "paddle" inserted into a slot in the car. Delco Electronics developed the Magne Charge inductive charging system around 1998 for the General Motors EV1 and it was also used for the Chevrolet S-10 EV and Toyota RAV4 EV vehicles.

Vehicle-to-grid: uploading and grid buffering
Main article: vehicle-to-grid

During peak load periods, when the cost of generation can be very high, electric vehicles could contribute energy to the grid. These vehicles can then be recharged during off-peak hours at cheaper rates while helping to absorb excess night time generation. Here the batteries in the vehicles serve as a distributed storage system to buffer power.


Electric vehicles provide for less dependence on foreign oil, which for the United States and other developed or emerging countries is cause for concern about vulnerability to oil price volatility and supply disruption.[2][133][134] Also for many developing countries, and particularly for the poorest in Africa, high oil prices have an adverse impact on their balance of payments, hindering their economic growth.[135][136] In the United States, presidential candidate Obama proposed in 2008 "1 million plug-in and electric" cars by 2015.[137] At the end of 2015 about 550 thousand plugin-in vehicles had been sold in the USA.[138]

Currently available electric cars
Main article: List of electric cars currently available
Highway capable
Main article: List of production battery electric vehicles
See also: Plug-in electric vehicle and List of modern production plug-in electric vehicles

The Nissan Leaf is the world's all-time top selling highway legal plug-in electric car. Global sales passed the 300,000 unit milestone in January 2018[10]

As of December 2015, there were over 30 models of highway-capable all-electric passenger cars and utility vans available in the market for retail sales. The global stock of light-duty all-electric vehicles totaled 739,810 units, out of a global stock of 1.257 million light-duty plug-in electric vehicles on the road at the end of 2015.[139] Cumulative global sales of all-electric cars and vans passed the 1 million unit milestone in September 2016.[140]

The Renault–Nissan–Mitsubishi Alliance is the world's leading all-electric vehicle manufacturer. The Alliance reached sales of 500,000 all-electric vehicles delivered globally in October 2017, including those manufactured by Mitsubishi Motors, now part of the Alliance.[29]

As of September 2017, Tesla, Inc. ranked as the all-time second best-selling all-electric vehicle manufacturer with more than 250,000 electric cars worldwide since delivery of its first Tesla Roadster in 2008.[27][28] Its Model S was the world's best selling plug-in electric car for two years in a row, 2015 and 2016.[141][142][143][11] In early October 2016, Tesla reported that combined miles driven by its three models have accumulated 3 billion electric miles (4.8 billion km) traveled. The first billion mark was recorded in June 2015 and the second billion in April 2016.[144] BMW is the third best selling all-electric vehicle manufacturer with more than 65,000 i3s sold through December 2016, including the REx variant.[141][145]

The world's all-time top selling highway legal electric car is the Nissan Leaf, released in December 2010, with global sales of more than 300,000 units through January 2018.[10] The Tesla Model S ranks second with global sales of 212,874 cars delivered as of December 2017.[11] The Renault Kangoo Z.E. utility van is the leader of the light-duty all-electric segment with global sales of 25,205 units through December 2016.[146] In December 2014, Nissan announced that Leaf owners have accumulated together 1 billion kilometers (620 million miles) driven. This amount of electric miles translates into saving 180 million kilograms of CO2 emissions by driving an electric car in comparison to travelling with a gasoline-powered car.[147] In December 2016, Nissan reported that Leaf owners worldwide achieved the milestone of 3 billion kilometers (1.9 billion miles) driven collectively through November 2016.[148]

Electric cars by country
Main article: electric car use by country
See also: plug-in electric vehicles in the United States, new energy vehicles in China, plug-in electric vehicles in Japan, plug-in electric vehicles in Europe, and plug-in electric vehicles in Norway
See also: plug-in electric vehicles in France, plug-in electric vehicles in Germany, plug-in electric vehicles in Canada, plug-in electric vehicles in the United Kingdom, and plug-in electric vehicles in Sweden

Annual sales of light-duty plug-in electric vehicles in the world's top markets between 2011 and 2017[149][150][151]

As of December 2016, more than two million highway legal plug-in electric passenger cars and light utility vehicles (PEVs) have been sold worldwide.[152] The stock of plug-in electric cars represented 0.15% of the 1.4 billion motor vehicles on the world's roads by the end of 2016, up from 0.1% in 2015.[152][153][154] The three million milestone was achieved in November 2017.[155]

Sales of plug-in electric vehicles achieved the one million milestone in September 2015, almost twice as fast as hybrid electric vehicles (HEV). While it took four years and 10 months for the PEV segment to reach one-million sales, it took more than around nine years and a few months for HEVs to reach its first million sales.[156][157] Cumulative global sales of highway-capable light-duty pure electric vehicles passed one million units in total, globally, in September 2016.[140][158] When global sales are broken down by type of powertrain, all-electric cars have oversold plug-in hybrids, with pure electrics capturing 61% of the global stock of two million light-duty plug-ins on the world's roads by the end of 2016.[159]

Government subsidy
See also: government incentives for plug-in electric vehicles

Several countries have established grants and tax credits for the purchase of new electric cars, typically depending on battery size. The U.S. offers a federal income tax credit up to US$7,500,[42] and several states have additional incentives.[160] The UK offers a Plug-in Car Grant up to a maximum of GB£4,500 (US$5,929).[161] The U.S. government also pledged US$2.4 billion in federal grants for the development of advanced technologies for electric cars and batteries,[162] despite the fact that overall sales aren't increasing at the expected speed.[163]

As of April 2011, 15 European Union member states provide economic incentives for the purchase of new electrically chargeable vehicles, which consist of tax reductions and exemptions, as well as of bonus payments for buyers of all-electric and plug-in hybrid vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles, and some alternative fuel vehicles.[164][165]

See also
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List of electric cars currently available


All-electric vehicles (EVs) run on electricity only. They are propelled by one or more electric motors powered by rechargeable battery packs. EVs have several advantages over vehicles with internal combustion engines (ICEs):

Energy efficient. Electric vehicles convert about 59%–62% of the electrical energy from the grid to power at the wheels—conventional gasoline vehicles only convert about 17%–21% of the energy stored in gasoline to power at the wheels.*

Environmentally friendly. EVs emit no tailpipe pollutants, although the power plant producing the electricity may emit them. Electricity from nuclear-, hydro-, solar-, or wind-powered plants causes no air pollutants.

Performance benefits. Electric motors provide quiet, smooth operation and stronger acceleration and require less maintenance than ICEs.

Reduce energy dependence. Electricity is a domestic energy source.

Wikipedia Graphs around electric cars

U.S. plug-in electric vehicle cumulative sales by month by type of power train from December 2010 up to June 2015.[278][305] Cumulative plug-in electric car sales since 2008 passed the 300,000 unit milestone in January 2015.[306]

Registration of plug-in electric vehicles in Norway by year between 2004 and 2014[299][354]

An electric car is anautomobile that is propelled by one or more electric motors, using electrical energy stored in rechargeable batteries or another energy storage device. Electric motors give electric cars instant torque, creating strong and smooth acceleration. They are also around three times as efficient as cars with an internal combustion engine.

The first practical electric cars were produced in the 1880s.[1] [2] Electric cars were popular in the late 19th century and early 20th century, until advances in internal combustion engines, electric starters in particular, and mass production of cheaper gasoline vehicles led to a decline in the use of electric drive vehicles. The energy crises of the 1970s and 1980s brought a short-lived interest in electric cars; although, those cars did not reach the mass marketing stage, as is the case in the 21st century. Since 2008, a renaissance in electric vehicle manufacturing has occurred due to advances in batteries and energy management, concerns about increasing oil prices, and the need to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.[3][4] Several national and local governments have established tax credits, subsidies, and other incentives to promote the introduction and adoption in the mass market of new electric vehicles depending on battery size and their all-electric range.

Electric cars are significantly quieter than conventional internal combustion engine automobiles. They do not emit tailpipe pollutants,[5] giving a large reduction of local air pollution, and, can give a significant reduction in total greenhouse gas and other emissions (dependent on the method used for electricity generation[3][4]). 

They also provide for independence from foreign oil, which in several countries is cause for concern about vulnerability to oil price volatility and supply disruption.[3][6][7] Recharging can take a long time and in many places there is a patchy recharging infrastructure. For long distance driving, many cars support fast charging that can give around 80% charge in half an hour using public fast chargers.[8][9][10] 

While battery cost is decreasing fairly rapidly, it is still relatively high, and because of this, most electric cars have a more limited range and a somewhat higher purchase cost than conventional vehicles. Drivers can also sometimes suffer from range anxiety- the fear that the batteries will be depleted before reaching their destination.[3][4]

As of September 2015, there are over 30 models of highway legal all-electric passenger cars and utility vans available for retail sales, mainly in the United States, China, Japan, Western European countries. By mid-September 2015, about 620,000 light-duty electric vehicles have been sold worldwide out of total global sales of one million plug-in electric cars sold since 2008.[11] The world's top selling highway-capable electric car is the Nissan Leaf, released in December 2010 and sold in 46 countries. Global Leaf sales passed the 200,000 unit milestone in December 2015, and the Tesla Model S, released in June 2012, ranks second with over 107,000 units sold worldwide.[12][13][14]


Besides electric bikes, golf carts and electric battery powered mopeds, many other kinds of electric vehicles are available these days; 

Wikipedia; :Electric cars are a variety of electric vehicle (EV). The term "electric vehicle" refers to any vehicle that uses electric motors for propulsion, while "electric car" generally refers to highway-capable automobiles powered by electricity.

Low-speed electric vehicles, classified as neighborhood electric vehicles (NEVs) in the United States,[12] and as electric motorised quadricycles in Europe,[13] are plug-in electric-powered microcars or city cars with limitations in terms of weight, power and maximum speed that are allowed to travel on public roads and city streets up to a certain posted speed limit, which varies by country.

Two electric cars charging on street in Amsterdam: Tesla Model S (left) and Smart ED (right).

All electric cars are powered by batteries, which must be charged. Driving ranges can vary greatly depending on the car and the size of the battery, plus the weight of the vehicle. At least one electric car has a range close to 300 miles, without any gasoline motor assistance. Average miles possible with a pure electric car range between 50 to 300 miles.  These vehicles must be plugged in to recharge the battery and have no gasoline engine backup.

Quick charges are possible if the vehicle is designed and built this way and a quick charge can take as little as 15 to 20 minutes. Normal charge times depend on whether one plugs into 110V or 220V, size of battery, etc.. but generally charge in 4 to 12 hours. 

Hybrids are generally mostly gasoline engine powered, but get only between 1 to 20 miles on a small battery which allows for neighborhood drives to the grocery store without ever starting the engine. The engines on hybrids start automatically when the battery charge gets low. The gasoline engine may work together with the batteries or separately, depending on the car and model. The hybrid battery requires charging via a plug and charger, times vary by model and manufacturer, plus 110V or 220V charging options.

Plug In Electric Cars are designed to have long range batteries, but still offer a gasoline engine for those really long trips. No battery charging stops are required on those long vacation trips across country.

The battery on these plug in long range hybrid cars is larger than on an average hybrid car, so the car can be driven between 50 to 300 miles without a charge, and without the gasoline engine kicking in. Quick charges are not needed, because the gas engine provides sufficient power to recharge the batteries and to keep on driving without stopping, except to refuel the gas motor. 

Examples of plug in electric cars;

Chevrolet Volt
Ford C Max Energi
Toyota Prius Plug In
Cadillac ELR
Ford Fusion Energi
BMW I3 With Range
Porshe PanAmera
Porsche Cayenne SE Hybrid
Honda Accord PlugIn


Jay Lenno tests 100 year old electric car and compares it to a Ford Focus electric car
VIDEO 6 min


Top 5 Best Electric Cars 2017

Includes information about Chevy Volt, which gets unlimited range due to backup gas motor, which recharges batteries while driving on long trips. 


Find and compare electric cars quickly via this handy on line guide

NOTE: Click on the right or left arrow keys on your keyboard to scroll through all of the electric and/or gas/electric vehicles at the top of the webpage. Click on vehicle picture to get to the information page on that car.

The following is ONE example of ONE electric car information provided; accessible by clicking on the link above. 

) Your fuel savings with this car*
You will spend $578 on fuel and save $802 per year.

2) Your annual oil savings*
Each year, you will not burn 523 gallons of oil.

3) Your annual CO2 emissions savings*
With emissions at 3,809 lbs CO2 per year, the NISSAN LEAF emits 70.6% fewer emissions than the midsize car, the Toyota Camry—in your EPA eGRID region (CAMX).

4) EVs for sale near you
Check the sidebar at right for electric vehicles for sale near you on eBay. Cars may also be available at your local dealer — check out the manufacturer's website (also in the sidebar) for details.

5) Solar homes
Our Solar Homes program is currently only available in Arizona, California, Colorado, Connecticut, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Jersey, and New York. Find our more about the program at our Solar Homes website.

6) State/local incentives*
CA has the following incentive(s) for electric vehicles:
EV Rebates / Tax Credits:
As part of California's Clean Vehicle Rebate Project, rebates of up to $5,000 are available for residents and business owners who purchase or lease light-duty zero-emission or plug-in hybrid electric vehicles. To see if the vehicle you are interested in purchasing qualifies and to apply for a rebate click here

Los Angeles Department of Water and Power (LADWP) residential and commercial customers who purchase or lease a new electric vehicle and install Level 2 EVSE with a separate time-of-use meter at their home are eligible for a rebate of up to $750. From August 2013 to the end of June 2015, LADWP offers rebates to the first 2,000 applicants. For more information click here

The San Joaquin Valley Air Pollution Control District (SJVAPCD) administers the Drive Clean! Rebate Program, which provides rebates of up to $3,000 for the purchase or lease of eligible new electric vehicles. For more information, click here

The California Air Resource Board is initiating a pilot project to help low-income individuals and families switch to much cleaner and more fuel-efficient cars. A family may qualifty to receive up to $12,000 toward purchase of an electric car.

EVs are exempt from some tolls. For more information, click here

Farmers Insurance provides a discount of up to 10% on all major insurance coverage for HEV and AFV owners. 

AB 95 raises the cap on the Green Sticker program, which allows electric vehicles in carpool lanes regardless of occupancy, from 70,000 to 85,000 cars. 

EVSE Charging Equipment Programs / Tax Credits:
Plug-In Electric Vehicle (PEV) 'Ready Building Requirements' in Los Angeles require that newly constructed buildings must have the necessary hardware for PEV charging, one- and two-family houses must be equipped with at least one PEV charging outlet, and at least 5% of common parking spaces must provide for PEV charging outlets. 

Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment (EVSE) Open Access laws require that EVSE providers must disclose charging information, including pricing, and provide for pricing options to help make EVSEs accessible to all PEV owners. 

Utility Programs:
Various utility companies (San Diego Gas Electric, Sacramento Municipal Utility District, Southern California Edison, Pacific Gas Electric, LADWP) offer special pricing for residential customers charging plug-in vehicles.For more information, check the 'Utility/Private Incentives' section by clicking here

Residential EVSE Financing Program uses Property Assessed Clean Energy financing to allow homeowners to borrow money to install EVSE. For more information click here

Southern California Edison (SCE) offers two discounted rates (during on- and off- peak hours) to customers for electricity used to charge EVs.For more information, click here

Pacific Gas & Electric (PG&E) offers a discounted Experimental Residential Time-of-Use rate for electricity used to charge EVs. For more information, click here

San Diego Gas & Electric (SDG&E) offers lower rates to customers for electricity used to charge EVs. For more information, click here

Glendale Water & Power is offering a $200 rebate to the first 100 Single Family Residents who purchase or lease an Electric Vehicle and install a 240V EV charging station or outlet. For more information, click here

Other EV Incentives:
AB 95 raises the cap on the Green Sticker program, which allows electric vehicles in carpool lanes regardless of occupancy, from 70,000 to 85,000 cars. For more information click here

The Motor Vehicle Registration Fee Program provides funding for projects that reduce air pollution from vehicles, including alternative fuel vehicle (AFV) purchases and AFV fueling infrastructure. For more information, click here

Cities around California offer EV-friendly parking and charging stations. Some of which are even free. See this map to locate charging stations near you

SB 1275 - Low-income residents who agree to scrap older cars will get clean-vehicle rebates.


Detailed List of Electric Cars and Plug-in Hybrids


Complete List of incentives for electric cars

2015 to 2016 Funding plan for electric car rebates

Clean vehicle rebates

Income limit changes


Wikipedia; "The electric car company Tesla Motors uses laptop -size cells for the battery packs of its electric cars, which are 3 to 4 times cheaper than dedicated electric car battery packs of other auto makers. Dedicated battery packs cost $700–$800 per kilowatt hour, while battery packs using small laptop cells cost about $200. This could drive down the cost of electric cars that use Tesla's battery technology such as the Toyota RAV4 EV, Smart ED and Tesla Model X which announced for 2014.[60][61][62] As of June 2012, and based on the three battery size options offered for the Tesla Model S, the New York Times estimated the cost of automotive battery packs between US$400 to US$500 per kilowatt-hour.[63]

A 2013 study, by the American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy reported that battery costs came down from US$1,300 per kilowatt hour in 2007 to US$500 per kilowatt hour in 2012. The U.S. Department of Energy has set cost targets for its sponsored battery research of US$300 per kilowatt hour in 2015 and US$125 per kilowatt hour by 2022. 

Cost reductions of batteries and higher production volumes will allow plug-in electric vehicles to be more competitive with conventional internal combustion engine vehicles.[64] However, in 2014 manufacturers were already offering battery packs for about $300/kWh.[65]

Several governments have established policies and economic incentives to overcome existing barriers, promote the sales of electric cars, and fund further development of electric vehicles, batteries and components. Several national and local governments have established tax credits, subsidies, and other incentives to reduce the net purchase price of electric cars and other plug-ins.[66][67][68][69]


Just as with gasoline cars, some are more efficient than others, but the average EV needs about 30 kWh of electricity to power the vehicle for 100 miles. For example, the EPA rating for the Nissan LEAF is exactly 30 kWh per 100 miles. A Tesla Model S 60 is rated at a combined 35 kWh per 100 miles and uses a little more energy since it’s heavier and more powerful than a LEAF, while the Chevy Spark EV has a combined consumption rating of 28 kWh per 100 miles. The consumption for all electric vehicles can be viewed at the US Department of Energy’s website:

Access: Unlimited monthly access is provided for $19.99 per month. Subscribing to the AV network starts with calling 888-833-2148 or filling out a form on AV’s website. The company will send a key fob that activates the chargers. If you are a current subscriber there is no activation fee. If you are a new subscriber, there will be a one-time activation fee of $15.

Cost per charge: As an alternative to the flat monthly access fee, there is the option of paying per session: $7.50/session for DC Fast Charger; and $4.00/session for a Level 2 charging station. (Per session payment is only available by calling the Customer Service Support Line at 888-833-2148).
much more;

Live updated map showing closest power/recharge stations to you, no matter where you are

Access this map and an app that can be installed on any smartphone at;

AGR has tested all apps like this and rated the plugshare app as the best, out of all of them.

A solar energy charging station in North America


EZ-Charge gives you access to multiple charging networks, all from the convenience of a single access card. Gain access to participating electric vehicle chargers in your area with one card. That’s right, one card and multiple charging networks. Charging your electric vehicle has never been so simple.


The average cost of electricity in the US is 12 cents per kWh. Therefore the average person driving an average EV 15,000 miles per year pay about $540.00 per year to charge it. As mentioned, the cost of electricity can vary greatly depending on where you live, but in order to equal the price of the average gasoline car’s fuel costs, the price of electricity would have to be four times the national average, and cost 48 cents per kWh. Nowhere in the continental US does electricity cost even close to that much. So the average person would save roughly $1,600 per year in fuel alone, and that's if gasoline prices remain around $3.53 per gallon.

Bottom line, if a person likes saving money on fuel and maintenance, it pays to lease or purchase an electric or plug in hybrid vehicle. 


According to Researchers at the University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute, the sales-weighted average fuel economy of all new vehicles sold in the United States in 2013 was 24.8 mpg. The average cost for a gallon of regular gasoline in the US over the past three years was $3.53/gallon. By using 15,000 miles as the average amount of miles a person will drive in a year, the annual cost of gasoline for the average car will be $2,135 per year, using the average cost of gasoline from 2011 through 2013.

This stat does not tell the whole story though. Pretty much all electric cars also have regenerative braking built into them, which means that these electric vehicles actually fill up their 'gas tanks' whenever they go down hill or are slowing down for a free way exit, just to name two examples. No fossil fuel car will fill up it's own gas tank, but just about all electric cars do this. 

In addition, if a person has a 20 amp 110 Volt outlet on the exterior of their home, this allows an plug in hybrid or electric vehicle owner to charge their vehicle overnight. This is the equivalent of owning a gas station at home, which is worth approximately 1 million dollars. If that family also signs up for 100 percent renewable energy via a company such as Sonoma Clean Power, then that vehicle will not only be much cheaper to fill up than any fossil fuel vehicle, but it will also be powered by 100 percent wind or solar power, without ever having to pay for any solar panels on the roof. 

How cool is that? 


There are stories going around the Internet and among certain groups that electric cars are actually MORE polluting that the average gasoline powered car, but this is a myth, spread through misinformation channels linked to the fossil fuel industry. They will spread any myth or lie in order to keep people in fear and away from electric cars. 

Wikipedia; "Electric cars usually also show significantly reduced greenhouse gas emissions, depending on the method used for electricity generation to charge the batteries.[2][3]

Even when the power is generated using fossil fuels, electric vehicles usually, compared to gasoline vehicles, show significant reductions in overall well-wheel global carbon emissions due to the highly carbon intensive production in mining, pumping, refining, transportation and the efficiencies obtained with gasoline.[111] 

Researchers in Germany have claimed that while there is some technical superiority of electric propulsion compared with conventional technology that in many countries the effect of electrification of vehicles' fleet emissions will predominantly be due to regulation rather than technology.[112] Indeed, electricity production is submitted to emission quotas, while vehicles' fuel propulsion is not, thus electrification shifts demand from a non-capped sector to a capped sector.

Many countries are introducing CO2 average emissions targets across all cars sold by a manufacturer, with financial penalties on manufacturers that fail to meet these targets. This has created an incentive for manufacturers, especially those selling many heavy or high-performance cars, to introduce electric cars as a means of reducing average fleet CO2 emissions.[113]

Volkswagen conducted a life-cycle assessment of its electric vehicles certified by an independent inspection agency. The study found that CO2 emissions during the use phase of its all-electric VW e-Golf are 99% lower than those of the Golf 1.2 TSI when powers comes from exclusively hydroelectricity generated in Germany, Austria and Switzerland. Accounting for the electric car entire life-cycle, the e-Golf reduces emissions by 61%. When the actual EU-27 electricity mix is considered, the e-Golf emissions are still 26% lower than those of the conventional Golf 1.2 TSI.[135]

Of course, these numbers only go up, if the manufacturing facility gets 100% of its power from clean zero carbon renewable energy. Some manufacturers are moving in this direction or are already there. The numbers go up further if recycling of all materials used in the construction of electric cars happens, because the energy to build a new electric car comes about mainly due to the exotic metals used to build them. Once the cars have reached the end of their lifespan, those cars will be recycled and the exotic metals will also be recycled. 

The average car these days has close to 100 percent of its contents recycled into new cars, making it one of the energy efficient industries overall in terms of cradle to grave strategies. 


Internal combustion engines are relatively inefficient at converting on-board fuel energy to propulsion as most of the energy is wasted as heat. On the other hand, electric motors are more efficient in converting stored energy into driving a vehicle, and electric drive vehicles do not consume energy while at rest or coasting, and some of the energy lost when braking is captured and reused through regenerative braking, which captures as much as one fifth of the energy normally lost during braking.[2][151] Typically, conventional gasoline engines effectively use only 15% of the fuel energy content to move the vehicle or to power accessories, and diesel engines can reach on-board efficiencies of 20%, while electric drive vehicles have on-board efficiency of around 80%.[151]


How to buy an electric car for as little as 12K
VIDEO 10 min. Think about the iMiEV is a subcompact electric car that you can drive for the same price as a gasoline compact. The 2016 Mitsubishi iMiEV now starts at under $23,000 which might sound like a lot for such a small car. But consider the fact that you get a $7500 tax credit and many states have their own tax credit to boot. So really you can have an all-electric battery powered car for the price of a Hyundai. The question you have to ask yourself is “Am I giving anything up by buying a deeply discounted electric car?”

The EPA rated range for the iMiEV is 62 miles per charge. The iMiEV has a 49 KW electric motor which translates to 66 horsepower and 145 lb-ft. of torque. This may not sound like much but the iMiEV is a flyweight at 2700 lbs. which is 400 lbs. less than the Chevy Spark EV.


In the UK, a new Renault Zoe electric car is available for £13,999. Many people have asked how far I drove. I had 2 days driving the car, I followed set routes Renault organised and covered between 60-80 miles in the morning, stopped for lunch for one hour and charged the car using their rapid charger, then did a further 80 miles. I never got anywhere near a low battery, the Zoe could easily get past 100 miles on a charge.


For somewhere in the neighborhood of $2K to $4K down, it is possible to lease an all electric vehicle for somewhere in the neighborhood of $130 to $150 per month. (Price check done recently, in SF Bay area). Again, this price is just for the smartcar, and other vehicles will be substantially more.

Nissan Leaf just had a special promotion in Sept. 2015, where they offered a $89 dollar a month lease, with approximately $4K down, for 3 years. Of course, in our local area, the allotment of vehicles for this special deal went quickly, and it is not available anymore. But keep your eyes and ears open for 'deals' like this, which make it very hard NOT to into an electric car, just based on the fuel cost savings alone. 


Summary of Nissan Leaf results using EPA L4 test cycle
operating the 2011 Leaf under different real-world scenarios[186][187]
SpeedTemperatureTotal drive
Cruising (ideal condition)386168203 hr 38 min138222Off
City traffic243977254 hr 23 min105169Off
Highway558995351 hr 16 min70110In use
Winter, stop-and-go traffic152414−104 hr 08 min62100Heater on
Heavy stop-and-go traffic61086307 hr 50 min4776In use
EPA five-cycle tests[75]n.a.73117Varying
The Tesla Roadster can travel 245 miles (394 km) per charge;[188] more than double that of prototypes and evaluation fleet cars currently on the roads.[189]'


Tesla Electric Car Beats BMW M5 in Drag Race 0 To 100 MPH; via A Green Road

All Electric Vehicles Listing Guide, Shows All Available Models, Prices, Leasing, Features, Rebates, Charging Stations, Money Saved,  Top Ten 2015 Electric Cars, Benefits Of Electric Cars

Ford Ranger Electric Vehicle EV Truck; Who Killed The Electric Vehicle Truck? Many Types Of Electric Trucks Are Available Now, No Need To Wait For Huge Monopolies To 'Solve' The Problems

Tesla Motors Supercharger System Promises Free Power To Charge Electric Cars/Vehicles For Life USA, EU, Canada, Asia

Electric Car Owner Jailed For 'Stealing' .05 Cents Worth Of Electricity At School, Oil Industry Entitlements Block Electric Car Sales, 1 In 5 Cars Sold In Norway Is Electric

200 Mile Per Charge Electric Cars, That Also Serve As Backup Power For Your Home And Utility Company

Zero Fuel Cost, Zero Emissions, Self Charging Vehicle Examples - Grid Energy Storage And Income

VW XL1 Turbo Diesel Hybrid -- The Most Efficient Carbon Fuel Car In The World, 300 MPG

First Folding Electric Artificial Intelligence Bike; via @AGreenRoad

The Future of Public Transportation; Electric Buses; via @AGreenRoad

Hydrogen Powered Car, Using Hydride Gas Storage System; via @AGreenRoad

Low Cost $1,000 Conversion Of Pickup Truck to 100% Electric Pickup, Low Cost Or Free Electric Trucks Available

100% Electric Car Future Celebrated On National Plug In Day (Sept 10-18), Organize A Plug In Day In Your Area Or Volunteer To Help Out; Tesla CEO Elon Musk: Half Of New Cars Will Be Electric In 20 Years

Tesla Motors Supercharger System Promises Free Power To Charge Electric Cars/Vehicles For Life USA, EU, Canada, Asia

Chevrolet Volt, An Electric Car With Almost Unlimited Mileage Thanks To Onboard Generator, No More Batteries Running Out Due To Lack Of Charge; History, Manufacturing, Operating, Mileage, S Curve


Compressed air car
Electric boat
Electric bus
Electric car use by country
Electric motorcycles and scooters
Electric vehicle conversion
Government incentives for plug-in electric vehicles
Hybrid electric vehicle (HEV)
List of electric cars currently available
List of modern production plug-in electric vehicles
List of production battery electric vehicles
Nikola Tesla electric car hoax
Patent encumbrance of large automotive NiMH batteries
Plug-in electric vehicle (PEV)
Plug-in electric vehicles in the Netherlands
Plug-in hybrid (PHEV)
Solar Golf Cart
The Greenpower Challenge - EV racing for young people
The long tailpipe


With the new 'quick charge' and regenerative braking capabilities of electric cars, it is now possible to use an electric car as your main family vehicle. Of course, they are mainly designed to drive around town and/or commuting between 50 to 100 miles per day. On longer trips, use the quick charge stations that are now popping up all across the country to recharge in 20 - 30 minutes. It may take a little more time, but you can save money and work on cleaning the air, while everyone else is hooked on the dirty gasoline monopoly.

Use the quick charge feature via quick charge stations accessible via the smartphone app called Plugshare when needed, but plug in at home and recharge overnight using the trickle charge feature that many exterior outlets can offer if they are rated at 20 amps. Get up to 2 years of free charging via leasing or purchase of a Nissan electric car; check with a local dealer on details of this.

How many fossil fuel cars offer two years of free gasoline, or the potential of a 'free' gas station worth up to 1 million dollars, that can be accessed at home?   


We are all in this together, stuck together like sardines in a can.

Stuck In The Middle With You

Tryin to make sense of it all
Don't think I can take it anymore
Stuck here in the middle with you



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Wayne Dyer - What You Think, You Become (Wayne Dyer Meditation)

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2019 - 12 Best Electric Cars with the Longest Driving Range - S Curve And EV Market - Available EV Models, Prices, Leasing, Features, Rebates, Charging Stations, Money Saved - Benefits Of Electric Vehicles - List Of Best Selling Electric Cars

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