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Chemical WMD Weapons Developed By Jewish Chemist Later Used Against Jews In Nazi Death Camps - Instead Of Speeding Up The End Of War And Saving Lives Poison Gas Did The Exact Opposite - Peaceful Revolution Overthrew Russian Government - Ypres: the Poison Gas Inferno - Battles of World War I


GENEVA CONVENTION AND THE HAGUE CONVENTION OF 1847 AND 1907 WAS SIGNED BY ALL NATIONS INVOLVED IN WWI, IT BANNED ALL FORMS OF POISONS, INCLUDING POISON GAS, BUT IT WAS COMPLETELY IGNORED, AND NO ONE INVOLVED WAS PUNISHED AFTERWARDS FOR THOSE VIOLATIONS

Hague Convention with respect to the Laws and Customs of War on Land 
Wikipedia; "This voluminous convention contains the laws to be used in all wars on land between signatories. It specifies the treatment of prisoners of war, includes the provisions of the Geneva Convention of 1864 for the treatment of the wounded, and forbids the use of poisons, the killing of enemy combatants who have surrendered, looting of a town or place, and the attack or bombardment of undefended towns or habitations. Inhabitants of occupied territories may not be forced into military service against their own country and collective punishment is forbidden. The section was ratified by all major powers mentioned above.[11]


The First Hague Conference in 1899

The Second Hague Conference in 1907
(IV,2): Declaration concerning the Prohibition of the Use of Projectiles with the Sole Object to Spread Asphyxiating Poisonous Gases
This declaration states that, in any war between signatory powers, the parties will abstain from using projectiles "the sole object of which is the diffusion of asphyxiating or deleterious gases." Ratified by all major powers, except the United States.[14]

Though not negotiated in The Hague, the Geneva Protocol to the Hague Conventions is considered an addition to the Conventions. Signed on 17 June 1925 and entering into force on 8 February 1928, its single article permanently bans the use of all forms of chemical and biological warfare. The protocol grew out of the increasing public outcry against chemical warfare following the use of mustard gas and similar agents in World War I, and fears that chemical and biological warfare could lead to horrific consequences in any future war. The protocol has since been augmented by the Biological Weapons Convention (1972) and the Chemical Weapons Convention (1993).

Legacy

Many of the rules laid down at the Hague Conventions were violated in World War I. The German invasion of Belgium, for instance, was a violation of Convention (III) of 1907, which states that hostilities must not commence without explicit warning.[35] Poison gas was introduced by Germany and used by all major belligerents throughout the war, in violation of the Declaration (IV, 2) of 1899 and Convention (IV) of 1907, which explicitly forbade the use of "poison or poisoned weapons".[36]

Writing in 1918, the German international law scholar and neo-Kantian pacifist Walther Schücking called the assemblies the "international union of Hague conferences". Schücking saw the Hague conferences as a nucleus of a future international federation that was to meet at regular intervals to administer justice and develop international law procedures for the peaceful settlement of disputes, asserting that "a definite political union of the states of the world has been created with the First and Second Conferences."[37]

After World War II, the judges of the military tribunal of the Trial of German Major War Criminals at Nuremberg Trials found that by 1939, the rules laid down in the 1907 Hague Convention were recognised by all civilised nations and were regarded as declaratory of the laws and customs of war. Under this post-war decision, a country did not have to have ratified the 1907 Hague Convention in order to be bound by them.[38]

Although their contents have largely been superseded by other treaties, the Hague Conventions of 1899 and 1907 continue to stand as symbols of the need for restrictions on war and the desirability of avoiding it altogether. Since 2000, Convention (I) of 1907 on the Pacific Settlement of International Disputes has been ratified by 20 additional states.[17]
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hague_Conventions_of_1899_and_1907

WHY IS THERE ALWAYS ENOUGH MONEY FOR WAR, BUT NEVER ENOUGH FOR PEACE, EDUCATION, A SOCIAL SAFETY NET, HUMAN RIGHTS, OR A FUTURE FREE OF POISONS, TOXINS AND HEAVY METALS?

When money can be printed with no regard for actual real value linked to gold or silver, by the central bankers, then war becomes easy. Bankers fund all wars, often profiting from war while funding both 'sides' of the actual conflicts. Getting rich off of war is easy, which is why war mongers and weapons dealers are held in such low regard historically speaking. War mongers always want bigger and better weapons, which always cost more, thus ensuring more profit. This cycle of more profit, bigger weapons and more money needed to fund them means less and less money is available for everything else.







































Because 'bankers wars' are so profitable and the new plus bigger weapons need to be 'tested', laws and international agreements seem to have no effect. International laws and treaties were broken during WWI, but no leader was held accountable for this or brough to trial after starting or causing 'illegal' wars.

The US today still has huge stockpiles of chemical WMD weapons, and is ready to use them. Being a world power and an example to the rest of the world, the message from the US superpower seems to be; ignore and/or block all global treaties, conventions leading to peace, and do whatever you want, because war mongering for profit and military power is the goal.

Even today, war criminals are held up as hero's and and those developing illegal and poisonous WMD are given huge rewards in many ways, instead of jail sentences.

Until this upside down culture that celebrates suffering, death and violence changes, no treaties or laws will stop the non stop wars using WMD. Because each war plus standing armies tends to solidify fascism and top down 1 percent control, peace is harder and harder to achieve with each successive war that is engaged in. The military industrial complex grows in power with each war, thus taking more and more control of government, society, politicians, elections and more.

Source/credit; The Other 98 Percent

PANDORA'S BOX OF WAR HORRORS WAS OPENED AND THE HORRORS CAME POURING OUT; TRUMP'S 'ARMAGEDDON' IS IN FULL SWING TODAY, MANY YEARS AFTER THE WAR THAT WAS SUPPOSED TO END ALL WARS


At the height of WWI, over 400,000 artillery shells were fired per day, and 1.4 BILLION artillery shells were fired during WWI. At the peak, 1/3 of all shells and/or grenades used daily in WWI involved them being filled with some form of poison gas. 

Over 1 million men died due to chemical WMD weapons alone. WWI was the first time WMD was used against both civilians and army forces, resulting in a massive genocidal number of casualties. The justification used was that this would shorten the war, and save lives. Instead, WMD poison gas resulted in the exact opposite end result in the longer term. Supposedly Christian nations were using 'an eye for an eye' revenge motive against other Christian nations. Each side prayed to God to favor them in their killing fields. 

The Germans invented poison gas, and used it 15 times during WWI. The Allies copied the Germans and used it 300 times against the Germans, creating the new maxim; "Those who create and live by poison gas WMD, die by poison gas WMD."

Huge chemical firms, chemists and physicists had their origin here, and they have been deeply involved in every war since this time, generating huge profits for these corporations and their banker investors. The nuclear weapons industry was also born here, because it is just another, and newer WMD, bigger and 'better' than poison gas. After the first successful use of poison gas by the Germans, the soldiers involved in this 'disinfection unit' were paid a years salary, as a 'bonus'.

The Allies quickly developed their own poison gas, and used it even more ruthlessly against the Germans, by orders of magnitude. The rule of war is that once any army uses ANY WMD, all other nations get 'permission' to use it as well, as that is the nature of how war works. War devolves quickly into absolute chaos and anything goes lack of morals and rules, where WMD is finally used in massive amounts.

Eventually, nuclear weapons as WMD will be used in a future WWIII, just like poison gas was used during WWI, and nuclear bombs were used at the end of WWII, with the same justifications, unless they are banned and gotten rid of beforehand. The world lived through the use of WMD poison gas, luckily lived through the use of over 2,000 nuclear bomb 'tests', the equivalent of WMD use. The world is living currently through the use of DU munitions WMD, which also causes a huge increase in suffering and deaths overall, long term.

Poisons were used during the Vietnam war as well, and those poisons are still killing people today, in the form of chemical industry generated Agent Orange. Poisons and toxins are the favorites and darlings of the military industrial complex. The military industrial complex will end up destroying the whole world and all of humanity, if supposedly civilized humans don't ban and outlaw war, plus all WMD.

The same chemical WMD weapons used to kill the 'enemy', was used by the Germans to kill their own people and commit genocide against the Jewish people during WWII.. not too many years after the Jewish chemist invented it to help Germany beat a supposed 'enemy'...

That same scientist was forced to flee his own country in order to survive in a case of extreme racism and irony... His wife committed suicide due to his developing this WMD poison gas and then using it in an experiment to see how many millions of people it could kill, and how quickly it could do that. Humans don't need aliens invading and killing people, as humans are doing it to themselves quite well indeed.

Go deeper

TOP SECRET Hiroshima And Nagasaki Secrets Revealed Around 20,000 Nuclear Weapons On Hair Trigger Alert And Pro War Mass Media; Dispelling Myth That 2 Atomic Bombs Used On Civilian Cities Ended #WWII
https://www.agreenroadjournal.com/2016/05/top-secret-hiroshima-and-nagasaki.html

A DEATH PENALTY CAN EASILY BE EXPANDED TO MASS EXTERMINATION WITH JUST A MINOR MODIFICATION



During a visit to Minsk in August 1941, Himmler witnessed an Einsatzgruppen mass execution first-hand and concluded that shooting Jews was too stressful for his men.[108] By November he made arrangements for any SS men suffering ill health from having participated in executions to be provided with rest and mental health care.[109] He also decided a transition should be made to gassing the victims, especially the women and children, and ordered the recruitment of expendable native auxiliaries who could assist with the murders.[109][110] Gas vans, which had been used previously to kill mental patients, began to see service by all four main Einsatzgruppen from 1942.[111] However, the gas vans were not popular with the Einsatzkommandos, because removing the dead bodies from the van and burying them was a horrible ordeal. Prisoners or auxiliaries were often assigned to do this task so as to spare the SS men the trauma.[112] Some of the early mass killings at extermination camps used carbon monoxide fumes produced by diesel engines, similar to the method used in gas vans, but by as early as September 1941 experiments were begun at Auschwitz using Zyklon B, a cyanide-based pesticide gas.[113]
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Einsatzgruppen

QUOTES ABOUT GLOBAL WORLD WAR AND FUTILITY OF ASSASSINATIONS AND FUTILITY OF WARS

The total number of military and civilian casualties in World War I was more than 38 million: there were over 17 million deaths and 20 million wounded, ranking it among the deadliest conflicts in human history. The total number of deaths includes about 11 million military personnel and about 7 million civilians. The Triple Entente (also known as the Allies) lost about 6 million military personnel while the Central Powers lost about 4 million

Assassinating people does not do anything beneficial long term. The assassination of just one small country's government leader led directly to WWI, causing millions of deaths, as itemized above.

After Abraham Lincoln was assassinated, it changed nothing in a beneficial way. As the US assassinates or topples democratically elected leaders and starts false flag attacks which then justify illegal invasions, the blowback actually makes things worse. Violence begets violence and war spreads the seeds for even more wars, plus escalating violence globally. 

ABRAHAM LINCOLN (1809-assassinated 1865) 16th President of the United States*
*Abraham Lincoln ran and won the presidency as a 3rd-Party candidate

“Global war has become a Frankenstein’s monster, threatening to destroy both sides… It contains now only the germs of a double suicide.”– DOUGLAS MacARTHUR (1880-1964) American general

***

“For what can war, but endless war still breed.”
– JOHN MILTON ((1608-1674) English poet

***

“Morality will conquer war, even as it has conquered human sacrifices, slavery, feuds, head-hunting and cannibalism.”
– MAX NORDAU (1849-1923) German writer, physician

WORLD WAR I WAS WON BY DIVIDING AND CONQUERING THE ENEMY FROM WITHIN AND CAUSING THE COLLAPSE OF THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE, WHICH THEN RESULTED IN THE END OF WORLD WAR I, AND THE SPLITTING UP OF THE EMPIRE TERRITORY VIA SECRET AGREEMENTS 

Other than temporary victories and temporary peace treaties, WWI really did not help anyone other than the 1 percent to become richer. The 99 percent suffered and died in a war that killed millions but changed little to benefit the 99 percent. The stalemate in the trenches was not broken by the development of WMD or the use of it. WWI ended not with bayonet charges or armies marching victoriously, but by internal strife and revolutions within the warring countries.

The Ottoman Empire comprised of Turkey, Syria, Iraq, Lebanon, Saudi Arabia, and made up over 18 million people.. including Kurds, Jews and Arabs. The British colluded with the Saudi Arabs to topple the Ottoman empire from within, because there was a stalemate on the front lines of the war and the British realized that they could not win through force of arms or men alone. In other words, a divide and conquer strategy via secret CIA type operations was used, and continues to be used today, by the modern day empire of the 1 percent against the 99 percent. 

By working together with Emir Faisal, a British secret service agent, Laurence of Arabia conspired on behalf of the British together with the Arabs to bring down the Ottoman empire from within via a violent overthrow. World War I had reached a stalemate, with trench warfare killing many hundreds of thousands, but with no real gains or losses of territory.

The British empire together with their equivalent of the CIA today, organized the 'Arab Revolt', using 'terrorist' tactics of hit and run, bombings, assassinations and more. The British monarchy reached secret agreements with the Arabs, but did not tell the Arabs that they also agreed with the French to split up the territory once the Ottoman empire fell, in secret.

Foreign minister Sikes secretly signed a map giving the same land that had been promised to the Arabs to the French. The British also signed an agreement via Balfour with the Jews, to give land to the Jews in the land of Palestine, and of course, neither the French nor the Arabs were told of this secret agreement. 

Russia signed a peace treaty with Germany and withdraws from WWI due to internal revolts and conflicts, created by WWI itself. 

Then the British plus other allies turned their backs on the Arabs after the Arabs caused the overthrow of the Ottoman Empire. The British did not follow through on their promises to the Arabs. But the British did keep their promises with the other 'secret' parties that they made agreements to divide up land, consisting of the French and Jews, according to an NHK World documentary.

History is repeating itself today, with the American empire causing the overthrow of middle eastern 'empires' through the use of divide and conquer secret strategies within foreign nations, and meddling in their elections processes, including the assassinations of their leaders.

Are all of these nations around the world just going to sit quietly by and let the US take over the whole world?

WORLD WAR I CAUSED THE COLLAPSE OF THREE EMPIRES, BUT SPREAD THE SEEDS THAT LED TO THE RISE OF THREE FASCIST REGIMES, LEADING TO WWII

One hundred years ago, on April 6, 1917, Congress voted to declare war on imperial Germany. The First World War was the pivot of the 20th century: It took the lives of 17 million people and resulted in the collapse of three major empires (the German, the Ottoman and the Austro-Hungarian). In the aftermath, totalitarian regimes both right and left came to power, leading to a second, far bloodier global conflict. Alas, for most Americans, the “Great War” holds little interest, particularly compared with the Civil War, World War II and Vietnam — all conflicts remembered as titanic moral struggles that transformed the nation. This neglect has given rise to some serious misconceptions about the war in which more than 116,000 Americans died.
Five myths about World War I – The Washington Post

War spreads the seeds for all future wars, by spreading hate, fear and division. The rise of Hitler could not have happened unless Hitler had participated in WWI, where he came to certain fear/hate based conclusions. The nation of Germany also participated in WWI, where the nation came to certain fear/hate and revenge based conclusions, which then led to WWII.

The loser of a particular war often wants revenge and will start another war just to 'get even', or to regain lost territory, or to try and 'win' against another religion, color of skin, belief system, or culture.


JEWISH CHEMIST HABER INVENTED POISON GAS AS NEW AND BETTER PLUS MORE LETHAL WEAPON OF MASS DESTRUCTION, PROMISING IT WOULD END WAR SOONER, AND SAVE LIVES; INSTEAD IT DID EXACTLY THE OPPOSITE AND WAS USED AGAINST JEWS IN A HOLOCAUST

Inventors without empathy or heart seem to keep coming up with new and better plus more efficient ways to kill more and more people, via newer and better weapons of mass destruction. The false justification used for new WMD is a fake promise that this 'newer and better' weapon will prevent war, cause the end of war, and/or save lives.

In actual reality what happens is exactly the opposite. Each new weapon of mass destruction causes more suffering, longer wars, more deaths, more insanity, bigger longer lasting wars, and more violence.

Germany wanted to invade other countries and win WWI in order to get 'revenge' for all of the perceived wrongs that they had to endure at the hands of their perceived enemies. They wanted new and better weapons, which would give them an 'edge' in order to 'get even' and become a world super power.

A German Jewish inventor tried to help the army 'win' the war by inventing a poison gas, which would kill soldiers in the trenches, where bombs and bullets could not get at them. He promised it would quickly end WWI and offer the Germans a guaranteed victory over it's enemies. Instead, the use of poison gas caused the opposite result and the Germans plus their allies ended up losing the war.

Rather than learning from this huge loss of life and defeat, Germany tried to 'win' again, during WWII.

Wikipedia; "In his studies of the effects of poison gas, Haber noted that exposure to a low concentration of a poisonous gas for a long time often had the same effect (death) as exposure to a high concentration for a short time. He formulated a simple mathematical relationship between the gas concentration and the necessary exposure time. This relationship became known as Haber's rule. (This same rule applies to radioactive heavy metal poisons, spread around the world by the nuclear industry and DU weapons)

Haber defended gas warfare against accusations that it was inhumane, saying that death was death, by whatever means it was inflicted. During the 1920s, scientists working at his institute developed the cyanide gas formulation Zyklon A, (a predecessor to Zyklon B, the brand name of a German gas pesticide that was used during the Holocaust) which was used as an insecticide, especially as a fumigant in grain stores.[19]

DOCUMENTARY MOVIE ABOUT THE FIRST USE OF A POISON GAS WEAPON OF MASS DESTRUCTION, WHICH KILLED APPROXIMATELY 1 MILLION PEOPLE AND NEGATIVELY AFFECTED MANY MORE


Ypres: the Poison Gas Inferno - Deadly Battles of World War I 

"Poison gas killed 80,000 soldiers in World War I. Nearly ONE MILLION more were victims who suffered its lingering effects. Initially the wind distributed chlorine gas across the battlefields of the western front but an arms race quickly developed until one in three shells contained some form of toxic gas.

It's not the statistics, however, that make this a successful documentary. A surprising amount of black-and-white footage and interviews with survivors and relatives of key players tell a compelling tale of motivations and consequences. 

For those who adhere to the maxim that history repeats itself, it's worth noting that despite an international convention banning chemical weapons, both sides of the Great War deployed poison gases with few reservations. As one interviewee puts it, patriotism defeated morality."

Bottom line, the new poison gas WMD did not speed up the war or cause it to end sooner, but it did increase the number of dead, suffering and disabled. WMD made war much more impersonal, cold and uncaring. 

WMD weapons of all kinds continue to be used globally, thus causing a huge increase in the numbers of casualties and injured for the indefinite future, since many of these newer WMD weapons do not go away, but keep on killing for millions of years. 

HISTORY OF WORLD WAR I, EASTERN FRONT; EVERYONE THOUGHT THEY WOULD WIN, BUT IN THE END, EVERYONE WHO GOT INVOLVED LOST

Wikipedia; "The Eastern Front of World War I(Russian: Восточный фронт, sometimes called the "Second Fatherland War" or "Second Patriotic War" (Russian: Вторая Отечественная война) in Russian sources)[7] was a theatre of operations that encompassed at its greatest extent the entire frontier between the Russian Empireand Romania on one side and the Austro-Hungarian Empire, Bulgaria, the Ottoman Empire and the German Empire on the other. It stretched from the Baltic Sea in the north to the Black Sea in the south, included most of Eastern Europe and stretched deep into Central Europe as well. The term contrasts with "Western Front", which was being fought in Belgium and France.

In the opening months of the war, the Imperial Russian Army attempted an invasion of eastern Prussia in the northwestern theater, only to be beaten back by the Germans after some initial success. At the same time, in the south, they successfully invaded Galicia, defeating the Austro-Hungarian forces there.[8] In Russian Poland, the Germans failed to take Warsaw. But by 1915, the German and Austro-Hungarian armies were on the advance, dealing the Russians heavy casualties in Galicia and in Poland, forcing it to retreat. Grand Duke Nicholas was sacked from his position as the commander-in-chief and replaced by the Tsar himself.[9] Several offensives against the Germans in 1916 failed, including Lake Naroch Offensive and the Baranovichi Offensive. However, General Aleksei Brusilov oversaw a highly successful operation against Austria-Hungary that became known as the Brusilov Offensive, which saw the Russian Army make large gains.[10][11][12]

The Kingdom of Romania entered the war in August 1916. The Entente promised the region of Transylvania (which was part of Austria-Hungary) in return for Romanian support. The Romanian Army invaded Transylvania and had initial successes, but was forced to stop and was pushed back by the Germans and Austro-Hungarians when Bulgaria attacked them in the south. Meanwhile, a revolution occurred in Russia in February 1917 (one of the several causes being the hardships of the war). Tsar Nicholas II was forced to abdicate and a Russian Provisional Government was founded, with Georgy Lvov as its first leader, who was eventually replaced by Alexander Kerensky.

The newly formed Russian Republic continued to fight the war alongside Romania and the rest of the Entente until it was overthrown by the Bolsheviks in October 1917. Kerensky oversaw the July Offensive, which was largely a failure and caused a collapse in the Russian Army. The new government established by the Bolsheviks signed the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk with the Central Powers, taking it out of the war and making large territorial concessions. Romania was also forced to surrender and signed a similar treaty, though both of the treaties were nullified with the surrender of the Central Powers in November 1918.

Geography

The front in the east was much longer than that in the west. The theater of war was roughly delimited by the Baltic Sea in the west and Minsk in the east, and Saint Petersburg in the north and the Black Sea in the south, a distance of more than 1,600 kilometres (990 mi). This had a drastic effect on the nature of the warfare.

While World War I on the Western Front developed into trench warfare, the battle lines on the Eastern Front were much more fluid and trenches never truly developed. This was because the greater length of the front ensured that the density of soldiers in the line was lower so the line was easier to break. Once broken, the sparse communication networks made it difficult for the defender to rush reinforcements to the rupture in the line, mounting rapid counteroffensives to seal off any breakthrough.

PROPAGANDA TECHNIQUES WERE HONED AND PERFECTED DURING WWI, CARRIED ON AFTERWARDS, WITHOUT LETUP


Propaganda was a key component of the culture of World War I. It was most commonly deployed through the state-controlled media to glorify the homeland and demonize the enemy. Propaganda often took the form of images which portrayed stereotypes from folklore about the enemy or from glorified moments from the nation's history. On the Eastern Front, propaganda took many forms such as opera, film, spy fiction, theater, spectacle, war novels and graphic art. Across the Eastern Front the amount of propaganda used in each country varied from state to state. Propaganda took many forms within each country and was distributed by many different groups. Most commonly the state produced propaganda, but other groups, such as anti-war organizations, also generated propaganda.[13]

THE BEST LAID PLANS FOR WAR ALWAYS GO WRONG AND END UP IN CHAOS, WITH THINGS GOING OUT OF CONTROL LONGER TERM


Initial Situation in Belligerent Countries

Germany

Prior to the outbreak of war, German strategy was based almost entirely on the Schlieffen Plan. With the Franco-Russian Agreement in place, Germany knew that war with either of these combatants would result in war with the other, which meant that there would be war in both the west and the east. Therefore, the German General Staff, Alfred von Schlieffen, planned a quick, all-out ground war on the Western Front to take France and, upon victory, Germany would turn its attention to Russia in the east. Von Schlieffen believed Russia would not be ready or willing to move against and attack Germany due to the huge losses of military equipment that Russia suffered in the Russo-Japanese war, her low population density and lack of railroads.

Conversely, the German Navy believed it could be victorious over Britain with Russian neutrality, something which von Moltke knew would not be possible.

Romania

In the immediate years preceding the First World War, the kingdom of Romania was involved in the Second Balkan War on the side of Serbia, Montenegro, Greece and the Ottoman Empire against Bulgaria. The Treaty of Bucharest, signed on August 10, 1913, ended the Balkan conflict and added 6,960 square kilometers to Romania’s territory.[14] 

Although militarized, Romania decided upon a policy of neutrality at the start of the First World War, mainly due to having territorial interests in both Austria-Hungary (Transylvania and Bukovina) and in Russia (Bessarabia). Strong cultural influences also affected Romanian leanings, however. King Carol I, as a Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen, favoured his Germanic roots, while the Romanian people, influenced by their Orthodox church and Latin-based language, were inclined to join France. Perhaps King Carol’s attempts at joining the war on the side of the Central powers would have been fruitful had he not died in 1914, but Romanian disenchantment with Austria-Hungary had already influenced public and political opinion. French endorsement of Romanian action against Bulgaria, and support of the terms of the Treaty of Bucharest was particularly effective at inclining Romania towards the Entente. 

Furthermore, Russian courting of Romanian sympathies, exemplified by the visit of the Tsar to Constanta on June 14, 1914, signaled in a new era of positive relations between the two countries.[15] Nevertheless, King Ferdinand I of Romania maintained a policy of neutrality, intending to gain the most for Romania by negotiating between competing powers. According to historian John Keegan, the enticements offered by the Allies were never concrete, for in secret, Russia and France agreed not to honour any conventions when the end of the war came.[16]

Russia

The immediate reason for Russia's involvement in the First World War was a direct result of the decisions made by the statesmen and generals during July 1914. The July crisis was the culmination of a series of diplomatic conflicts that took place in the decades prior to 1914, and this is fundamental to an understanding of Russia's position immediately prior to the War. According to D. C. Lieven, Russia was a formidable force that was able to back up her diplomatic policies with force. 

In 1870 – 1914, the four leading powers in Europe were Russia, Prussia, Austria and France, each of whom exercised a similar proportion of power at the time. One of the most significant factors in bringing Russia to the brink of war was the downfall of her economy.[17] The 20 percent jump in defense expenditure during 1866-77 and in 1871-5 forced them to change their position within Europe and shift the balance of power out of her favour.[18]

At the time, Russian infrastructure was backward and the Russian government had to invest far more than its European rivals in structural changes. In addition there were overwhelming burdens of defense, which would ultimately result in an economic downfall for the Russians. This was a major strain on the Russian population, but also served as a direct threat to military expenditure.[19] Thus the only way the Russians could sustain the strains of European war would be to place more emphasis on foreign investment from the French who essentially came to Russia's aid for industrial change.[20] 

The Franco-Russian Alliance allowed for the Russian defense to grow and aid the European balance of power during the growth of the German Empire's might. In 1914, Germany was the most powerful state in all of Europe. Nevertheless, one of the key factors was that of the Russian foreign policy between 1890 and 1914.

Russian Propaganda




World War I caricature from Russia depicting Wilhelm II, Franz Joseph I and Mehmed V. Top: "If only we could get to the top - it would be ours!" Bottom: "Let me help you with that!"

In order for the Russians to legitimise their war efforts the government constructed an image of the enemy through state instituted propaganda. Their main aim was to help overcome the legend of the “invincible” German war machine, in order to boost the morale of civilians and soldiers. Russian propaganda often took the form of showing the Germans as a civilised nation, with barbaric “inhuman” traits. Russian propaganda also exploited the image of the Russian POWs who were in the German camps, again in order to boost the morale of their troops, serving as encouragement to defeat the enemy and to get their fellow soldiers out of the “inhuman” German POW camps.[21]

A key element of the Russian propaganda was the Investigate Commission formed in April 1915. It was led by Aleksei Krivtsov and the study was tasked with the job of studying the legal violations committed by of the Central Powers and then getting this information to the Russian public. This commission published photographs of letters that were allegedly found on fallen German soldiers. These letters document the German correspondents saying to “take no prisoners.” A museum was also set up in Petrograd, which displayed pictures that showed how “inhumanly” the Germans were treating prisoners of war.[21]


ANY ASSASSINATION OF A GOVERNMENT LEADER OR LOCAL CONFLICT CAN EASILY  AND QUICKLY ESCALATE INTO A GLOBAL WORLD WAR, HISTORICALLY  AND PRESENT DAY

Austria-Hungary

Illustration from the French magazine Le Petit Journal on the Bosnian Crisis: Bulgaria declares its independence and its prince Ferdinandis named Tsar, Austria-Hungary, in the person of Emperor Francis Joseph, annexes Bosnia and Herzegovina, while the Ottoman Sultan Abdul Hamid II looks on helplessly.

Austria-Hungary's participation in the outbreak of World War I has been neglected by historians, as emphasis has traditionally been placed on Germany's role as the prime instigator.[22] 

However, the "spark" that ignited the First World War is attributed to the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand by Gavrilo Princip, which took place on June 28, 1914. Approximately a month later, on July 28, 1914, Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia. 

This act led to a series of events that would quickly expand into the First World War; thus, the Habsburg government in Vienna initiated the pivotal decision that would begin the conflict.[22]

The causes of the Great War have generally been defined in diplomatic terms, but certain deep-seated issues in Austria-Hungary undoubtedly contributed to the beginnings of the First World War.[23] The Austro-Hungarian situation in the Balkans pre-1914 is a primary factor in its involvement in the war. The movement towards South Slav unity was a major problem for the Habsburg Empire, which was facing increasing nationalist pressure from its multinational populace. As Europe's third largest state, the Austro-Hungarian monarchy was hardly homogeneous; comprising over fifty million people and eleven nationalities, the Empire was a conglomeration of a number of diverse cultures, languages, and peoples.[24]

Specifically, the South Slavic people of Austria-Hungary desired to amalgamate with Serbia in an effort to officially solidify their shared cultural heritage. Over seven million South Slavs lived inside the Empire, while three million lived outside it.[25] With the growing emergence of nationalism in the twentieth century, unity of all South Slavs looked promising. This tension is exemplified by Conrad von Hötzendorf's letter to Franz Ferdinand:

The unification of the South Slav race is one of the powerful national movements which can neither be ignored nor kept down. The question can only be, whether unification will take place within the boundaries of the Monarchy - that is at the expense of Serbia's independence - or under Serbia's leadership at the expense of the Monarchy. The cost to the Monarchy would be the loss of its South Slav provinces and thus of almost its entire coastline. The loss of territory and prestige would relegate the Monarchy to the status of a small power.[26]

The annexation of Bosnia-Herzegovina in 1908 by Austrian foreign minister Baron von Aehrenthal in an effort to assert domination over the Balkans inflamed Slavic nationalism and angered Serbia. Bosnia-Herzegovina became a "rallying cry" for South Slavs, with hostilities between Austria-Hungary and Serbia steadily increasing.[27] The situation was ripe for conflict, and when Serbian Princip assassinated Austrian Ferdinand, these longstanding hostilities culminated into an all-out war.

The Allied Powers wholeheartedly supported the Slavs' nationalistic fight. George Macaulay Trevelyan, a British historian, saw Serbia's war against Austria-Hungary as a "war of liberation" that would "free South Slavs from tyranny."[28] In his own words: "If ever there was a battle for freedom, there is such a battle now going on in Southeastern Europe against Austrian and Magyar. If this war ends in the overthrow of the Magyar tyranny, an immense step forward will have been taken toward racial liberty and European peace."[29]

Russia prior to 1914

Prior to 1914, the Russian’s lack of success in war and diplomacy in the six decades before 1914 sapped the country’s moral strength. The triumphs of Britain and Germany in the martial, diplomatic and economic spheres put these countries in the front rank of the world's leading nations.[30] This was a source of national pride, self-confidence and unity. It helped reconcile the worker to the state and the Bavarian or Scotsman to rule from Berlin or London. In the years prior to 1914, Austro-Russian co-operation was both crucial for European peace and difficult to maintain. Old suspicions exacerbated by the Bosnian crisis stood in the way of agreement between the two empires, as did ethnic sensitivities.

Russia’s historical role as liberator of the Balkans was difficult to square with Austria’s determination to control adjacent territories. [31] In 1913-1914 Saint Petersburg was too concerned with its own weakness and what it saw as threats to vital Russian interests, to spare much thought for Vienna’s feelings. The Russians were, with some justice, indignant that the concessions they had made after the First Balkan War in the interest of European peace had not been reciprocated by the Central Powers.[32]

This was doubly dangerous given the growing evidence flowing into Petersburg about Germany’s aggressive intentions. Both Bazarov and the agents of the Russian secret political police in Germany reported the concern aroused in public opinion by the press war against Russia, which raged in the spring of 1914.[33]

The Russian military was the largest in the world consisting of 1.4 million men prior to the war. They could also mobilize up to 5 million men, but only had 4.6 million rifles to give them. It also had poor leadership.

First combat (August 1914)

Hindenburg at Tannenberg,by Hugo Vogel


An engagement in Hungary

The war in the east began with the Russian invasion of East Prussia on 17 August 1914 and the Austro-Hungarian province of Galicia.[34] The first effort quickly turned to a defeat following the Battle of Tannenberg in August 1914.[35] A second Russian incursion into Galicia was completely successful, with the Russians controlling almost all of that region by the end of 1914, routing four Austrian armies in the process. Under the command of Nikolai Ivanov and Aleksei Brusilov, the Russians won the Battle of Galicia in September and began the Siege of Przemyśl, the next fortress on the road towards Kraków.[36]

This early Russian success in 1914 on the Austro-Russian border was a reason for concern to the Central Powers and caused considerable German forces to be transferred to the East to take pressure off the Austrians, leading to the creation of the new German Ninth Army. At the end of 1914, the main focus of the fighting shifted to central part of Russian Poland, west of the river Vistula.[37] The October Battle of the Vistula River and the November Battle of Łódź brought little advancement for the Germans, but at least kept the Russians at a safe distance.[38]

The Russian and Austro-Hungarian armies continued to clash in and near the Carpathian Mountains throughout the winter of 1914–1915. Przemysl fortress managed to hold out deep behind enemy lines throughout this period, with the Russians bypassing it in order to attack the Austro-Hungarian troops further to the west. They made some progress, crossing the Carpathians in February and March 1915, but then the German relief helped the Austrians stop further Russian advances. In the meantime, Przemysl was almost entirely destroyed and the Siege of Przemysl ended in a defeat for the Austrians.[39]

1915

In 1915 the German command decided to make its main effort on the Eastern Front, and accordingly transferred considerable forces there. To eliminate the Russian threat the Central Powers began the campaign season of 1915 with the successful Gorlice-Tarnow Offensive in Galicia in May 1915.

Russian troops going to the front: Support for the imperial guard being hurried into the fighting line

After the Second Battle of the Masurian Lakes, the German and Austro-Hungarian troops in the Eastern Front functioned under a unified command. The offensive soon turned into a general advance and a corresponding strategic retreat by the Russian Army. The cause of the reverses suffered by the Russian Army was not so much errors in the tactical sphere, as the deficiency in technical equipment, particularly in artillery and ammunition as well as the corruption and incompetence of the Russian officers. Only by 1916 did buildup of Russian war industries increase production of war material and improve the supply situation.

Chernivtsi, western Ukraine, during Habsburg rule, c. 1915

By mid-1915, the Russians had been expelled from Russian Poland and hence pushed hundreds of kilometers away from the borders of the Central Powers, removing the threat of Russian invasion of Germany or Austria-Hungary. At the end of 1915 German-Austrian advance was stopped on the line RigaJakobstadtDünaburgBaranovichiPinskDubnoTernopil. The general outline of this front line did not change until the Russian collapse in 1917.

Russo-Turkish Offensive, Winter 1915–16

After the Battle of Sarikamish, the Russo-Turkish front was relatively stagnant for a year, although there were local campaigns in Azerbaijan and Lake Van in April and June. The Turks were concerned with reorganizing their army, the Gallipoli Campaign, and "ethnic cleansing" in Turkish Armenia.[40] Meanwhile, the Caucasus Army had low priority, as Russia was preoccupied with other armies on the Eastern Front. However, the appointment of Grand Duke Nicholas Nikolaevich as Viceroy and Commander in the Caucasus in September 1915 radically changed the situation of the Russo-Turkish front.

When the Allies withdrew from Gallipoli in December, the Caucasus Army's Chief of Staff General Nikolai Yudenich believed Turkish forces would take action against his army. This concern was legitimate: Bulgaria's entry into the war as Germany's ally in October caused serious alarm, as a land route from Germany to Turkey was now open and would allow for an unrestricted flow of German weapons to the Turks.[40] 

A "window of opportunity" appeared that would allow the Russians to destroy the Turkish Third Army, as the British required assistance in Mesopotamia (now modern day Iraq). Britain's efforts to besiege Baghdad had been halted at Ctesiphon, and they were forced to retreat. This led to an increasing number of attacks by Turkish forces. The British requested the Russians to attack Anatolia in an attempt to distract the Turks, and Yudenich agreed. The resulting offensive began on January 10, 1916.[41]

This offensive was unanticipated by the Turks, as it was in the middle of winter. The Turkish situation was exacerbated by the Third Army's commander Kamil Pasha and Chief of Staff Major Guse absence. Coupled with an imbalance of forces - the Russians had 325 000 troops, while the Turks only 78 000 - the situation appeared grim for the Central Powers.[41] After three months of fighting, the Russians captured the city of Trabzon on April 18, 1916.

1916

World War I poster from Russia: World fire, Second Patriotic War

The operations in 1916 were dictated by an urgent need to force Germany to transfer forces from its Western to Eastern fronts, to relieve the pressure on the French at the Battle of Verdun. This was to be accomplished by a series of Russian offensives which would force the Germans to deploy additional forces to counter them. The first such operation was the Lake Naroch Offensive in March–April 1916, which ended in failure.

Brusilov Offensive

The Italian operations during 1916 had one extraordinarily positive result: Austrian divisions were pulled away from the Russian southern front. This allowed the Russian forces to organize a counter-offensive. The Brusilov Offensive was a large tactical assault carried out by Russian forces against Austro-Hungarian forces in Galicia. General Aleksei Brusilov believed victory against the Central Powers was possible if close attention was paid to preparation. Brusilov suggested that the Russians should attack on a wide front, and to position their trenches a mere seventy-five yard away from Austrian trenches.[42]

Brusilov's plan worked impeccably. The Russians outnumbered the Austrians 200,000 to 150,000, and held a considerable advantage in guns, with 904 large guns to 600. Most importantly innovative new tactics similar to those independently invented by Erwin Rommel were used to perform quick and effective close-range surprise attacks that allowed a steady advance.[43] The Russian Eighth Army overwhelmed the Austrian Fourth and pushed on to Lutsk, advancing forty miles beyond the starting position. Over a million Austrians were lost, with over 500,000 men killed or taken prisoner by mid-June.[43]

Although the Brusilov Offensive was initially successful, it slowed down considerably. An inadequate number of troops and poorly maintained supply lines hindered Brusilov's ability to follow up on the initial victories in June. The Brusilov Offensive is considered to be the greatest Russian victory of the First World War.[11]:52 Although it cost the Russians half a million casualties, the offensive successfully diverted substantial forces of the Central Powers from the Western front, and persuaded Romania to join the war, diverting even more Central Powers forces to the East.[44]

Romania Enters the War

Romania may be the turning point of the campaign. If the Germans fail there it will be the greatest disaster inflicted upon them. Afterwards it will only be a question of time. But should Germany succeed, I hesitate to think what the effect will be on the fortunes of our campaign....and yet no one seems to have thought it his particular duty to prepare a plan... - Lloyd George[45]

British poster, welcoming Romania's decision to join the Entente

Up until 1916, the Romanians followed the tides of war with interest, while attempting to situate themselves in the most advantageous position. French and Russian diplomats had begun courting the Romanians early on, but persuasion tactics gradually intensified. For King Ferdinand to commit his force of half a million men, he expected the Allies to offer a substantial incentive.[46]

Playing on Romanian anti-Hungarian sentiment and the constant objective of territorial expansion, the Allies promised the territory of Ardeal (Transylvania) to Romania. Romania succumbed to Allied enticement on August 18, 1916.[47] Nine days later, on August 27, Romanian troops marched into the Austria-Hungarian territory of Transylvania.

Romania's entry into the war provoked major strategic changes for the Germans. In September 1916, German troops were mobilized to the Eastern Front. Additionally, the German Chief of the General Staff, General Erich Von Falkenhayn was forced to resign from office in order to command the combined Central Powers forces against Romania, along with General August von Mackensen. Kaiser Wilhelm II immediately replaced Falkenhayn with Paul von Hindenburg.[48] 

Von Hindenburg's deputy, the more adept Erich Ludendorff, was given effective control of the army and ordered to advance on Romania. On September 3, the first troops of the Central Powers marched into Romanian territory. Simultaneously, the Bulgarian Air Force commenced an incessant bombing of Bucharest.[49] In an attempt to relieve some pressure, French and British forces launched a new offensive known as the Battle of the Somme, while the Brusilov Offensive continued in the East.

It is certain that so relatively small a state as Rumania had never before been given a role so important, and, indeed, so decisive for the history of the world at so favorable a moment. Never before had two Great Powers like Germany and Austria found themselves so much at the mercy of the military resources of a country which had scarcely one twentieth of the population of the two great states. Judging by the military situation, it was to be expected that Rumania had only to advance where she wished to decide the world war in favor of those Powers which had been hurling themselves at us in vain for years. Thus everything seemed to depend on whether Rumania was ready to make any sort of use of her momentary advantage. -Paul von Hindenburg[50]

The entrance of Romania into the war was disconcerting for von Hindenburg. On September 15, Paul von Hindenburg issued the following order, stating that: "The main task of the Armies is now to hold fast all positions on the Western, Eastern, Italian and Macedonian Fronts, and to employ all other available forces against Rumania."[51] Fortunately for the Central Powers, the quantity and quality of the Romanian Army was overestimated. Although numbering half a million men, the Romanian Army suffered from poor training and a lack of appropriate equipment.

The initial success of the Romanian Army in Austria-Hungarian territory was quickly undermined by the Central Powers. German and Austro-Hungarian troops advanced from the north, while Bulgarian-Turkish-German forces marched into Romania from the south. Although thought to be a tactical blunder by contemporaries, the Romanians opted to mount operations in both directions.[52] By the middle of November the German force passed through the Carpathians, suffering significant casualties due to determined Romanian resistance. 

By December 5, Bulgarian troops had crossed the Danube and were approaching the capital, Bucharest. At the same time as the Austro-Hungarian troops moved east, and as the Bulgarians marched north, the Turks had sent in two army divisions by sea to the Dobruja from the east.[53] Eventually, the Romanian forces were pushed back behind the Seret in northern Moldova.

Aftermath of 1916

By January 1917, the ranks of the Romanian army had been significantly thinned. Roughly 150,000 Romanian soldiers had been taken prisoner, 200,000 men were dead or wounded, and lost two thirds of their country, including the capital.[54] Importantly, the Ploesti oilfields, the only significant source of oil in Europe west of the Black Sea, had been destroyed before they were abandoned to the Central Powers.

WARS ARE ALSO THE TINDER BOX OF REVOLUTIONS, AND WORLD WAR I WAS NO EXCEPTION TO THIS; WOMEN LED THE PEACEFUL REVOLUTION IN RUSSIA THAT TOPPLED A GOVERNMENT; WWI ENEMY FORCES COULD NOT ACCOMPLISH THIS

1917
Russia - The February Revolution

The Russian February Revolution aimed to topple the Russian monarchy and resulted in the creation of the Provisional Government. The revolution was a turning point in Russian history, and its significance and influence can still be felt in many countries today.[55] Although many Russians wanted a revolution, no one had expected it to happen when it did - let alone how it did.

On International Women's Day, Thursday, February 23, 1917, as many as 90,000 female workers in the city of Petrograd left their factory jobs and marched through the streets, shouting "Bread", "Down with the autocracy!" and "Stop the War!" These women were tired, hungry, and angry,[56] after working long hours in miserable conditions to feed their families because their menfolk were fighting at the front. They were not alone in demanding change; more than 150,000 men and women took to the streets to protest the next day.

By Saturday, February 25, the city of Petrograd was essentially shut down. No one was allowed to work or wanted to work.[57] Even though there were a few incidents of police and soldiers firing into the crowds, those groups soon mutinied and joined the protesters.[58] Tsar Nicholas II, who was not in Petrograd during the revolution, heard reports of the protests but chose not to take them seriously. By March 1, it was obvious to everyone except the czar himself, that his rule was over. On March 2 it was made official.[59]

Romania - The Summer Campaign and aftermath

In early July 1917, on the Romanian front, a relatively small area, there was one of the largest concentrations of combat forces and means known during the conflagration: nine armies, 80 infantry divisions with 974 battalions, 19 cavalry divisions with 550 squadrons and 923 artillery batteries, whose effectives amounted to some 800,000 men, with about one million in their immediate reserve. The three great battles, decisive for the Romanian nation's destiny, delivered at Mărăști, Mărășești and Oituz represented a turning point in the world war on the Eastern front. These battles, named by the localities and zones where they took place, were fought approximately on the front alignment stabilized in early 1917, which the conflicting sides had thoroughly consolidated for half a year.[60]

Between late July and early September, the Romanian Army fought the battles of Mărăști, Mărășești and Oituz, managing to stop the German-Austro-Hungarian advance, inflicting heavy losses in the process and winning the most important Allied victories on the Eastern Front in 1917.

As a result of these operations, the remaining Romanian territories remained unoccupied, tying down nearly 1,000,000 Central Powers troops and prompting The Times to describe the Romanian front as "The only point of light in the East".

On May 7, 1918, in light of the existing politico-military situation, Romania was forced to conclude the Treaty of Bucharest with the Central Powers, imposing harsh conditions on the country but recognizing its union with Bessarabia. Alexandru Marghiloman became the new German-sponsored Prime Minister. King Ferdinand, however, refused to sign the treaty.

The Germans were able to repair the oil fields around Ploiești and by the end of the war had pumped a million tons of oil. They also requisitioned two million tons of grain from Romanian farmers. These materials were vital in keeping Germany in the war to the end of 1918.[61]

WAR CREATES RIPE CONDITIONS FOR VIOLENT MILITARY GENERAL LED OVERTHROW OF GOVERNMENTS FROM WITHIN

Russia - The October Revolution
Main article: October Revolution

By September 1917, just months after the February Revolution, Lenin believed the Russian people were ready for another revolution, this time on Marxist principles.[62] On October 10, at a secret meeting of the Bolshevik party leaders, Lenin used all his power to convince the others that it was time for armed insurrection. After 24 hours of debate, a vote was taken the following morning: the result was ten to two in favour of a revolution. Troops who were loyal to the Bolsheviks took control of the telegraph stations, power stations, strategic bridges, post offices, train stations, and state banks,[63] without gunfire or any resistance.

Petrograd was officially in the hands of the Bolsheviks, who greatly increased their organization in factory groups and in many barracks throughout Petrograd. They concentrated on devising a plan for overturning the Provisional Government, with a coup d’état.[64] On October 24, Lenin emerged from hiding in a suburb, entered the city, set up his headquarters at the Smolny Institute and worked to complete his three-phase plan. With the main bridges and the main railways secured, only the Winter Palace, and with it the Provisional Government, remained to be taken. On the evening of November 7, the troops that were loyal to the Bolsheviks infiltrated the Winter Palace. After an almost bloodless coup, the Bolsheviks were the new leaders of Russia.[64] Lenin announced that the new regime would end the war, abolish all private land ownership, and create a system for workers' control over the factories.

1918
Main article: Operation Faustschlag

On 7 November 1917, the Communist Bolsheviks took power under their leader Vladimir Lenin. Lenin’s new Bolshevik government tried to end the war, with a ceasefire being declared on December 15, 1917 along lines agreed in November. At the same time Bolsheviks launched a full-scale military offensive against its opponents: Ukraine and separatist governments in the Don region. During the peace negotiations between Soviets and Central Powers, the Germans demanded enormous concessions, eventually resulting in the failure of the long-drawn-out peace negotiations on February 17, 1918. 

At the same time the Central Powers concluded a military treaty with Ukraine which was losing ground in the fight with invading Bolshevik forces. [65] The Russian Civil War, which started just after November 1917, would tear apart Russia for three years. As a result of the events during 1917, many groups opposed to Lenin’s Bolsheviks had formed. With the fall of Nicholas II, many parts of the Russian Empire took the opportunity to declare their independence, one of which was Finland, which did so in December 1917. 

WAR CREATES CONDITIONS FOR IGNITING INTERNAL CIVIL WARS WITHIN COUNTRIES PARTICIPATING IN A GLOBAL WAR


Finland too collapsed into a civil war

Finland declared itself independent Dec. 6th 1917, and this was accepted by Lenin a month later. The Finnish Parliament elected a German prince as King of Finland. However, the Socialists (The Reds) and the Whites in Finland fell into war with each other in January 1918. 

The Reds wanted Finland to be a Soviet republic, and was aided by Russian forces still in Finland. The Whites of Finland were led by General Carl Gustaf Mannerheim, a Finnish baron who had been in the Tsars service since he was 15 years old. The Whites were also offered help by a German Expeditionary Corps led by the German General Golz. Mannerheim never approved this. The German corps landed in Finland, but never got into battle, and was to no help, as the Whites had won the war by May 1918.

MANDATORY FORCED COMPULSION OF CIVILIANS BEING FORCED INTO THE MILITARY SETS UP A TOP DOWN 1 PERCENT CONTROL SYSTEM OVER SOCIETY, AND ENDS IN FASCISM, DICTATORSHIP OR OTHER DESPOTIC FORM OF GOVERNMENT


Formation of the Red Army

After the disintegration of the Russian imperial army and navy in 1917, the Council of People's Commissars headed by Leon Trotsky set about creating a new army. By a decree on January 28th, 1918 the council created the Workers' and Peoples' Red Army; it began recruitment on a voluntary basis, but on April 22nd, the Soviet government made serving in the army compulsory for anyone who did not employ hired labor. While the majority of the army was made up of workers and peasants, many of the Red Army's officers had served a similar function in the imperial army before its collapse.[66]
The old army was an instrument of class oppression of the working people led by the bourgeoisie.[67] The workers and the peasants which essentially made up the base of the Red Army joined the ranks, it required organization and standing on the platform of Soviet power, thus the search for a compulsory military training system. 

One of the main objectives of Socialism is to simply deliver mankind from the burden of barbarity of bloody clashes between nations.[68] This was the Russian thought process to rid the world’s capitalistic powers of their power and thus transferring it to the working class.

Treaty of Brest-Litovsk (March 1918)

Territory lost by Russia under the 1918 Treaty of Brest-Litovsk

UKRAINE ALSO DEGENERATED INTO A CIVIL WAR SITUATION DURING WW1


With the German Army just 85 miles (137 km) from the Russian capital Petrograd (St. Petersburg) on March 3, 1918, the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk was signed and the Eastern Front ceased to be a war zone. While the treaty was practically obsolete before the end of the year, it did provide some relief to the Bolsheviks, who were embroiled in a civil war, and affirmed the independence of Ukraine

However, Estonia and Latvia were intended to become a United Baltic Duchy to be ruled by German princes and German nobility as fiefdoms under the German Kaiser. Finland's sovereignty had already been declared in December 1917, and accepted by most nations, including France and the Soviet Union, but not by the United Kingdom and the United States. The Germans were able to transfer substantial forces to the west in order to mount an offensive in France in the spring of 1918.

This offensive on the Western Front failed to achieve a decisive breakthrough, and the arrival of more and more American units in Europe was sufficient to offset the German advantage. Even after the Russian collapse, about a million German soldiers remained tied up in the east until the end of the war, attempting to run a short-lived addition to the German Empire in Europe. In the end, Germany and Austria lost all their captured lands, and more, under various treaties (such as the Treaty of Versailles) signed after the armistice in 1918.

Role of women on the Eastern Front
2nd Lt. Ecaterina Teodoroiu, killed in action at Mărășești in 1917, is regarded as a national heroine in Romania.

In comparison to the attention directed to the role played by women on the Western Front during the First World War, the role of women in the east has garnered limited scholarly focus. It is estimated that 20 percent of the Russian industrial working class was conscripted into the army; therefore, women's share of industrial jobs increased dramatically. There were percentage increases in every industry, but the most noticeable increase happened in industrial labour, which increased from 31.4 percent in 1913 to 45 percent in 1918.[69]

British nursing efforts were not limited to the Western Front. Nicknamed the "Gray partridges" in reference to their dark gray overcoats, Scottish volunteer nurses arrived in Romania in 1916 under the leadership of Elsie Inglis. In addition to nursing injured personnel, Scottish nurses manned transport vehicles and acted as regimental cooks.[70] 

The "Gray Partridges" were well respected by Romanian, Serbian and Russian troops and as a result, the Romanian press went as far as to characterize them as "healthy, masculine, and tanned women." As a testament to her abilities, Elsie Inglis and her volunteers were entrusted to turn an abandoned building in the city of Galati into an operational hospital, which they did in a little more than a day.[71] Yvonne Fitzroy's published journal, "With the Scottish Nurses in Roumania," provides an excellent first hand account Scottish nursing activities in the Eastern Front.[72]

Prisoners of War in Russia

During World War One, approximately 200,000 German soldiers and 2.5 million soldiers from the Austro-Hungarian army entered Russian captivity. During the 1914 Russian campaign the Russians began taking thousands of Austrian prisoners. As a result, the Russian authorities made emergency facilities in Kiev, Penza, Kazan, and later Turkestan to hold the Austrian prisoners of war. As the war continued Russia began to detain soldiers from Germany as well as a growing number from the Austro-Hungarian army. 

WAR CREATES LOTS OF FREE SLAVE LABOR FOR BOTH SIDES IN THE CONFLICT, WHICH BENEFITS THE 1 PERCENT



The Tsarist state saw the large population of POWs as a workforce that could benefit the war economy in Russia. Many POWs were employed as farm laborers and miners in Donbas and Krivoi Rog. However, the majority of POWs were employed as laborers constructing canals and building railroads. The living and working environments for these POWs was bleak. There was a shortage of food, clean drinking water and proper medical care. 

During the summer months malaria was a major problem, and the malnutrition among the POWs led to many cases of scurvy. While working on the Murmansk rail building project over 25,000 POWs died. Information about the bleak conditions of the labor camps reached the German and Austro-Hungarian governments. They began to complain about the treatment of POWs. The Tsarist authorities initially refused to acknowledge the German and Habsburg governments. They rejected their claims because Russian POWs were working on railway construction in Serbia. However, they slowly agreed to stop using prison labor.[73] 

Life in the camps was extremely rough for the men who resided in them. The Tsarist government could not provide adequate supplies for the men living in their POW camps. The Russian government's inability to supply the POWs in their camps with supplies was due to inadequate resources and bureaucratic rivalries. However, the conditions in the POW camps varied; some were more bearable than others.[73]

WAR CREATES CONDITIONS FOR HUGE AMOUNTS OF DEATH FROM DISEASES, DUE TO LACK OF MEDICAL CARE AND UNHYGIENIC CONDITIONS PRESENT DURING ANY WAR


Disease on the Eastern Front

Disease played a critical role in the loss of life on the Eastern Front. In the East, disease accounted for approximately four times the amount of deaths caused by direct combat, in contrast to the three to one ratio in the West.[74] Malaria, cholera, and dysentery contributed to the epidemiological crisis on the Eastern Front; however, typhoid spotted fever, transmitted by pathogenic lice and previously unknown to German medical officers before the outbreak of the war, was the most deadly. 

There was a direct correlation between the environmental conditions of the East and the prevalence of disease. With cities excessively crowded by refugees fleeing their native countries, unsanitary medical conditions created a suitable environment for diseases to spread. Primitive hygienic conditions, along with general lack of knowledge about proper medical care was evident in the German occupied Ober Ost.[75]

Ultimately, a large scale sanitation program was put into effect. This program, named Santitätswesen (Medical Affairs), was responsible for ensuring proper hygienic procedures were being carried out in Latvia, Lithuania, and Poland. Quarantine centers were built, and diseased neighbourhoods were isolated from the rest of the population. Delousing stations were prevalent in the countryside and in cities to prevent the spread of typhoid spotted fever, with mass numbers of natives being forced to take part in this process at military bathhouses. A "sanitary police" was also introduced to confirm the cleanliness of homes, and any home deemed unfit would be boarded up with a warning sign.[75] Dogs and cats were also killed for fear of possible infection.

PROSTITUTION HAD TO BE LEGALIZED AND REGULATED IN ORDER TO MAINTAIN THE HEALTH OF THE ARMY, OR SEVERE NEGATIVE CONSEQUENCES WOULD APPEAR FOR THE LACK OF THIS 

To avoid the spread of disease, prostitution became regulated. Prostitutes were required to register for a permit, and authorities demanded mandatory medical examinations for all prostitutes, estimating that seventy percent of prostitutes carried a venereal disease.[75] Military brothels were introduced to combat disease; the city of Kowno emphasized proper educational use of contraceptives such as condoms, encouraged proper cleansing of the genital area after intercourse, and gave instructions on treatment in the case of infection.[75]


WAR ALWAYS GENERATES HUGE NUMBERS OF CASUALTIES, WITH A PROPORTION OF 10 CIVILIANS KILLED FOR EVERY 1 SOLDIER KILLED IN ACTION


Casualties
For more details on Russian losses, see World War I casualties § endnote Russia.

The Russian casualties in the First World War are difficult to estimate, due to the poor quality of available statistics.

Cornish gives a total of 2,006,000 military dead (700,000 killed in action, 970,000 died of wounds, 155,000 died of disease and 181,000 died while POWs). This measure of Russian losses is similar to that of the British Empire, 5% of the male population in the 15 to 49 age group. 

He says civilian casualties were five to six hundred thousand in the first two years, and were then not kept, so a total of over 1,500,000 is not unlikely. He has over five million men passing into captivity, the majority during 1915.[76]

When Russia withdrew from the war, 2,500,000 Russian POWs were in German and Austrian hands. This by far exceeded the total number of prisoners of war (1,880,000) lost by the armies of Britain, France and Germany combined. Only the Austro-Hungarian Army, with 2,200,000 POWs, came even close.[77]
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eastern_Front_(World_War_I)

WHEN WILL WARMONGERS BE TREATED AS CRIMINALS AND JAILED FOR THEIR CRIMES AGAINST HUMANITY? 



Source/credit; Thinking Minds

War mongers and profiteers must be brought to justice and classified as either being mentally ill or as criminals, or both. Those who start wars these days are very rarely at the front lines, but they are most often at the receiving end of huge amounts of money and benefits flowing directly from the military industrial complex, which feeds off of violence, death, mayhem, division and strife. 

War profiteering used to be illegal and immoral, but the corporate controlled mass media has now made them into heroes and honorable professionals... Things need to come around full circle if humanity is to survive, as WMD nuclear weapons being used like bullets will doom humanity to extinction, not victory. 

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WHY IS THE US SIDING WITH AND SUPPORTING TERRORISTS, WHEN THE MASS MEDIA CLAIMS THAT THE US MILITARY IS 'FIGHTING' TERRORISTS? 


The story keeps on repeating itself.. The US supports, trains and arms terrorists, and then gives them active intelligence. 

Why does the US do this, over and over again?

Reagan met with and allied the US military plus CIA with Al Queda, and the Taliban. 

Nothing has changed over time, except that the number and types of terrorist groups that the US allies itself with has only grown over time, into many different countries. 




Why Are We Siding With al-Qaeda in Syria and Yemen? – Antiwar.com by Ron Paul
Second, one of the last groups of ISIS fighters in Syria are around the Al-Tanf US military base which has operated illegally in northeastern Syria for the past two years. Last week, according to press reports, the Russians warned the US military in the region that it was about to launch an assault on ISIS fighters around the US base. The US responded by sending in 100 more US Marines and conducting a live-fire exercise as a warning. President Trump recently reversed himself (again) and announced that the US would remain at Al-Tanf “indefinitely.” Why? It is considered a strategic point from which to attack Iran. The US means to stay there even if it means turning a blind eye to ISIS in the neighborhood.

Finally, in Yemen, the US/Saudi coalition fighting the Houthis has been found by AP and other mainstream media outlets to be directly benefiting al-Qaeda. Why help al-Qaeda in Yemen? Because the real US goal is regime change in Iran, and Yemen is considered one of the fronts in the battle against Iranian influence in the Middle East. So we are aiding al-Qaeda, which did attack us, because we want to “regime change” Iran, which hasn’t attacked us. How does that make sense?

We all remember the old saying, attributed to Benjamin Franklin’s Poor Richard’s Almanack, that “if you lie down with dogs, you wake up with fleas.”

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Chemical WMD Weapons Developed By Jewish Chemist Later Used Against Jews In Nazi Death Camps - Instead Of Speeding Up The End Of War And Saving Lives Poison Gas Did The Exact Opposite - Peaceful Revolution Overthrew Russian Government - Ypres: the Poison Gas Inferno - Battles of World War I
https://www.agreenroadjournal.com/2016/11/chemical-wmd-weapons-developed-by.html

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