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Wednesday, May 15, 2019
Super Solar Storm, Carrington Event Of 1859, 774–775 AD Carbon-14 Spike And Link To Super Solar Storm, List Of Solar Storms Historically, What Does A Solar Storm Look Like? 


Movies and animations of solar storms, also known as coronal mass ejections

Troy Livingston Long duration X1.4 solar flare took place at new sunspot

Earth-orbiting satellites have detected a long-duration X1.4-class solar fare coming from a new sunspot on the sun’s eastern limb. The blast, which peaked at 1100 UT, produced a significant CME, but the cloud is not Earth-directed.

A long duration X-Class Solar Flare reaching X1.4 took place around the new Sunspot rotating into view on the eastern limb. This event caused a radio blackout reaching the R3 level which effected areas located on the sunlit side of earth. A Type II and Type IV radio sweep frequency event resulted as well as a TenFlare. A bright CME is seen in the latest STEREO Ahead COR2 images, but will most likely not be earth directed because of the sunspots position.

Solar activity has been high with one X-Class flare and multiple M-Class flares taking place around the new Sunspot rotating into view on the eastern limb. This region is not yet in prime position for earth directed CMEs. There will remain the chance for strong solar flares.

Top 10 Solar Flares of Cycle 24: (Sunspot number in brackets)

X6.9 – Aug 9, 2011 (1263)
X2.2 – Feb 15, 2011 (1158)
X2.1 – Sept 6, 2011 (1283)
X1.8 – Sept 7, 2011 (1283)
X1.5 – March 9 , 2011 (1166)
X1.4 – Sept 22, 2011 (1302)
M9.3 – Aug 4, 2011 (1261)
M9.3 – July 30, 2011 (1260)
M8.3 – Feb 6, 2010 (1045)
M6.6 – Feb 13, 2011 (1158)

Newly numbered NOAA Region 1302 (the bright area in the upper left of the NOAA/GOES-15 SXI image shown below) produced an X1 (NOAA Scale R3 – Strong) flare peaking at 7:01 AM Eastern (11:01 GMT) this morning. This flare did have an impressive coronal mass ejection (CME) associated with it.

However, given the location of Region 1302, this CME was not directed at Earth. Activity from this location can also increase the population of energetic protons near Earth (NOAA Solar Radiation Storm Scale), but these enhancements would be slow rising. This region is just now rotating into view, so the potential for continued activity is certainly there. Stay tuned for updates.



Newsweek, Sep 13, 2017 (emphasis added): Seven Massive Solar Flares Have Erupted From Furious Sunspot In Seven Days — The sun blasted out seven massive solar flares in as many days in an extraordinary period of space weather that has sparked stunning geomagnetic storms above the earth. Between September 4 and September 11, NASA observed seven flares, all classed in its strongest “X” category, with the most impressive registering at X9.3, a very significant event. The latest, at X8.2 also a significant flare, peaked at 12:06 p.m. EDT on Sept. 10. It prompted warnings of possible radio blackouts from the Space Weather Prediction Center, which also issued a geomagnetic storm warning for Wednesday and Thursday. The X9.3 solar flare was named by NASA as the strongest so far in the current solar cycle… These events have been extremely intense…


Solar storm of 1859

Wikipedia; "Sunspots of September 1, 1859, as sketched by Richard Carrington. A and B mark the initial positions of an intensely bright event, which moved over the course of five minutes to C and D before disappearing.
The solar storm of 1859 (also known as the Carrington Event)[1] was a powerful geomagnetic solar storm during solar cycle 10 (1855–1867). A solar coronal mass ejection hit Earth's magnetosphere and induced one of the largest geomagnetic storms on record, September 1–2, 1859. The associated "white light flare" in the solar photosphere was observed and recorded by British astronomers Richard C. Carrington (1826–1875) and Richard Hodgson (1804–1872).

Studies have shown that a solar storm of this magnitude occurring today would likely cause more widespread problems for a modern and technology-dependent society.[2][3] The solar storm of 2012 was of similar magnitude, but it passed Earth's orbit without striking the planet.[4]

Carrington flare

From August 28 to September 2, 1859, many sunspots appeared on the Sun. On August 29, southern auroras were observed as far north as Queensland, Australia.[5] Just before noon on September 1, the English amateur astronomers Richard Carrington and Richard Hodgson independently made the first observations of a solar flare.[6] Carrington and Hodgson compiled independent reports, which were published side-by-side in the Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, and exhibited their drawings of the event at the November 1859 meeting of the Royal Astronomical Society.[7][8]

The flare was associated with a major coronal mass ejection (CME) that travelled directly toward Earth, taking 17.6 hours to make the 150 million kilometre (93 million mile) journey. It is believed that the relatively high speed of this CME (typical CMEs take several days to arrive at Earth) was made possible by a prior CME, perhaps the cause of the large aurora event on August 29, that "cleared the way" of ambient solar wind plasma for the Carrington event.[6]

Because of a geomagnetic solar flare effect ("magnetic crochet")[9] observed in the Kew Observatory magnetometer record by Scottish physicist Balfour Stewart and a geomagnetic storm observed the following day, Carrington suspected a solar-terrestrial connection.[10] Worldwide reports on the effects of the geomagnetic storm of 1859 were compiled and published by American mathematician Elias Loomis, which support the observations of Carrington and Stewart.

On September 1–2, 1859, one of the largest recorded geomagnetic storms (as recorded by ground-based magnetometers) occurred. Auroras were seen around the world, those in the northern hemisphere as far south as the Caribbean; those over the Rocky Mountains in the U.S. were so bright that the glow woke gold miners, who began preparing breakfast because they thought it was morning.[6] 

People in the northeastern United States could read a newspaper by the aurora's light.[11] The aurora was visible as far from the poles as Sub-Saharan Africa (Senegal, Mauritania, perhaps Monrovia, Liberia), Monterreyand Tampico in Mexico, Queensland, Cuba, Hawaii,[12] and even at lower latitudes very close to the equator, such as in Colombia.[13] Estimates of the storm strength range from −800 nT to −1750 nT.[14]

Telegraph systems all over Europe and North America failed, in some cases giving telegraph operators electric shocks.[15]Telegraph pylons threw sparks.[16] Some telegraph operators could continue to send and receive messages despite having disconnected their power supplies.[17]

On Saturday, September 3, 1859, the Baltimore American and Commercial Advertiser reported:

Those who happened to be out late on Thursday night had an opportunity of witnessing another magnificent display of the auroral lights. The phenomenon was very similar to the display on Sunday night, though at times the light was, if possible, more brilliant, and the prismatic hues more varied and gorgeous. 

The light appeared to cover the whole firmament, apparently like a luminous cloud, through which the stars of the larger magnitude indistinctly shone. The light was greater than that of the moon at its full, but had an indescribable softness and delicacy that seemed to envelop everything upon which it rested. Between 12 and 1 o'clock, when the display was at its full brilliancy, the quiet streets of the city resting under this strange light, presented a beautiful as well as singular appearance.[18]

In June 2013, a joint venture from researchers at Lloyd's of London and Atmospheric and Environmental Research (AER) in the United States used data from the Carrington Event to estimate the current cost of a similar event to the U.S. alone at $0.6–2.6 trillion.[2]
Other evidence and similar eventsEdit

Ice cores containing thin nitrate-rich layers have been analysed to reconstruct a history of past solar storms predating reliable observations. It is claimed that data from Greenland ice cores show evidence of individual solar-proton events, including the Carrington event.[19] More recent work by the ice core community shows that nitrate spikes are not a result of solar energetic particle events, and, indeed, no consistency is found in cores from Greenland and Antarctica, and nitrate events can be due to terrestrial events, such as burnings, so use of this technique is in doubt.[20][21] 

Less severe storms have occurred in 1921 and 1960, when widespread radio disruption was reported. The March 1989 geomagnetic storm knocked out power across large sections of Quebec. On July 23, 2012 a "Carrington-class" solar superstorm (solar flare, coronal mass ejection, solar EMP) was observed; its trajectory missed Earth in orbit. Information about these observations was first shared publicly by NASA on April 28, 2014.[4][22]


774–775 carbon-14 spike

Wikipedia; "The 774–775 Carbon-14 Spike is an observed increase of 1.2% in the concentration of carbon-14 isotope in tree rings dated to the years 774 or 775 AD, which is about 20 times as high as the normal background rate of variation. It was discovered during a study of Japanese cedar trees, with the year of occurrence determined through dendrochronology.[1] A surge in beryllium isotope 10Be, detected in Antarctic ice cores, has also been associated with the 774–775 event.[2]

The event appears to have been global, with the same carbon-14 signal found in tree rings from Germany, Russia, the United States, and New Zealand.[2][3][4]

The time profile of the carbon-14 spike around 774 AD. The colored dots represent the measurements in Japanese (M12) and German (Oak) trees, while the black lines represent the modeled profile corresponding to the instant production of carbon-14. Modified after.[2]

The signal exhibits a sharp increase of ~1.2% followed by a slow decline (see Figure 1), which is typical for an instant production of carbon-14 in the atmosphere,[2] indicating that the event was short in duration. The globally averaged production of carbon-14 for this event is calculated as Q = (1.1–1.5)×108 atoms/cm2.[2][5][6]


Several possible causes of the event have been considered.

Annus Domini 774. This year the Northumbrians banished their king, Alred, from York at Easter-tide; and chose Ethelred, the son of Mull, for their lord, who reigned four winters. This year also appeared in the heavens a red crucifix, after sunset; the Mercians and the men of Kent fought at Otford; and wonderful serpents were seen in the land of the South-Saxons.

A "red crucifix" was recorded by the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle as appearing in the skies of Britain for the year 774; since no supernova remnant has been found for this year, it is interpreted as red Sprite (lightning)

In China, there are no clear references to an aurora in the mid 770s, as happened on 762; and "comet"-sightings of the 770s do not match the expected atmospheric phenomena.[8] Instead an anomalous "thunderstorm" was recorded for 775.[9]

The common paradigm is that the event was caused by a solar-particle event (SPE) from a very strong solar flare, perhaps the strongest ever known, but still within the Sun's abilities.[2][5][10][11][12] Another discussed scenario of the event origin, involving a gamma-ray burst,[6][13] appears unlikely, since the event was also observed in isotopes 10Be and 36Cl.[12]

Frequency of similar events

The AD 774/5 event in view of 10Be, 14C and 36Cl

The event of 774 is the strongest spike over the last 11,000 years in the record of cosmogenic isotopes,[10] but it is not unique. A similar eventoccurred in 993 or 994, but it was only 0.6 times as strong.[14] Several other events of the same kind are also suspected to have occurred during the Holocene epoch.[10]

From these statistics, one may expect that such strong events occur once per tens of millennia, while weaker events may occur once per millennium or even century. The event of 774 did not cause catastrophic consequences for life on Earth,[11] but had it happened in modern times, it may have produced catastrophic damage to modern technology, particularly to communication and space-borne navigation systems. In addition, a solar flare capable of producing the observed isotopic effect would pose considerable risk to astronauts.[15]

As of 2017, there is "little understanding"[16] of 14C past variations because annual-resolution measurements are only available for a few periods (e.g., the AD 774-775). In 2017, another "extraordinarily large" 14C increase (20‰) has been associated with the 5480 BC event.[16]


Wikipedia; "Solar storms are caused by disturbances on the Sun, most often coronal clouds associated with coronal mass ejections(CMEs) produced by solar flares emanating from active sunspot regions, or, less often, from coronal holes.


Active stars produce disturbances in space weather with the field of heliophysics the science that studies such phenomena; itself primarily an interdisciplinary combination of solar physics and planetary science. In the Solar System, the Sun can produce intense geomagnetic and proton storms capable of causing severe damage to technology including but not limited to large scale power outages, disruption or blackouts of radio communications (including GPS), and temporary to permanent disabling of satellites and other spaceborne technology. Intense solar storms may also be hazardous to high-latitude, high-altitude aviation and to human spaceflight.[1] 

Geomagnetic storms are the cause of auroras.[2] The most significant known solar storm occurred in September 1859 and is known as the "Carrington event".[3] The damage from the most potent solar storms is capable of existentially threatening the stability of modern human civilization,[4][5] although proper preparedness and mitigation can substantially reduce the hazards.[6] Proxy data from Earth, as well as analysis of stars similar to the Sun suggest that it may be capable of producing so called superflares, those which are much larger than any flares in the historical record (as much as 1000x stronger every 5000 years).[7][8]

Notable events

Electromagnetic, geomagnetic, and/or proton storms
Proxy evidence

2225 BCE[9]
1485 BCE[9]
95 CE[9]
265 CE[9]
774–775 carbon-14 spike[10][11][12] — connected to the "Red Crucifix" aurora over British Isles and environs
1460 CE[9]
1505 CE[9]
1707 CE[9]
1709 CE[9]
1719 CE[9]
1810 CE[9]

Direct measurements
Solar storm of 1859 ("Carrington event")

25–26 January 1938 geomagnetic storm ("Fátima storm")

17–19 September 1941 solar storm[14]

23 February 1956[15][16]

Late May 1967 solar storms[17]

August 1989[18]

Bastille Day event of July 14, 2000

20 January 2005[20][21]

Events not affecting Earth

The above events affected Earth (and its vicinity, known as the magnetosphere), whereas the following events occurred elsewhere in the solar system and were detected by monitoring spacecraft or other means.


Via XXLofoten Solar storm on it's way to earth! This means bigger than usual northern lights activity on Thursday. Join our Northern Lights Expedition at 21:00! Read more and book here:


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Super Solar Storm, Carrington Event Of 1859, 774–775 AD Carbon-14 Spike And Link To Super Solar Storm, List Of Solar Storms Historically, What Does A Solar Storm Look Like?

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Super Solar Storm, Carrington Event Of 1859, 774–775 AD Carbon-14 Spike And Link To Super Solar Storm, List Of Solar Storms Historically, What Does A Solar Storm Look Like? 
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