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Radar, Radio Wave (RF), EMF, Microwave (MW) Radiation Negative Health Effects On The Human Body; Details Ionizing Radiation Produced By Radar And Radio Frequency Emitting Devices And Problems With Measuring X Ray Radiation Emitted

The automotive, aviation and ship industries, plus other industries, are chock full of technology that emits radar, radio waves, EMF, Ionizing radiation, and microwaves. Auto driving cars use radar waves, which emit radiation. Collision avoidance systems use radar which emits radiation. Robots may use radar to avoid collisions. The use of cellphones has increased the amount of microwave and radio (RF) and EMF radiation everyone is exposed to. As with any type of radiation, the distance and strength of the radiation source matter, even for non ionizing radiation sources. Many companies and individuals claim that non ionizing radiation cannot ever hurt anyone, but the actual studies, evidence and data points to the opposite conclusion.  

What is the effect of these many non ionizing types of radiation on human and animal health? This article explores and dives into the research done over the years which details how and why radar, radio and microwave radiation is not 'safe', and that these radiation types do have negative impacts on health. What may surprise many people is that radar devices may emit ionizing radiation as a 'side effect' of what they do, but that those X rays are impossible to detect with a standard Geiger ionizing radiation counter. 

Be especially careful with old fashioned vacuum tubes (used in many devices outside of radar technology), as they are known to emit ionizing radiation that causes cancer and other negative health effects.

Source/credit; Battle Machines, showing military ship radar technology

Tobias Bjurefjäll Do not know the safety distance from a Burke, but on Patriot radar it is about 100m, and Burke is way more powerful....so its dangerous, I read somewhere they are not allowed to have the radar on while in port because they fry electronics in the surrounding area.

Arturo Bernal Just to put it into perspective: EWs; (Electronic Warfare radar operators) were called baby killers because a lot of emitting equipment was at waist level and left them sterile. Also, the Russians found out that if you put a rabbit  5m in front of a Mig-31's array at full power, you would essentially microwave it to death.


WHO: "EMF Electromagnetic fields and public health: radars and human health
Air traffic control radars are used to track the location of aircraft and to control their landing at airports. They are generally located at elevated positions where the beam is inaccessible to persons on the ground. Typical air traffic control radars can have peak powers of 100 kW or more, but average powers of a few hundred watts. 

Weather radars are often co-located with air traffic control radars in remote areas at airports. They operate at higher frequencies but generally have lower average and peak powers. 

Military radars are numerous and vary from very large installations, which have large peak (1 MW or greater) and average powers (kW), to small military fire control radars, typically found on aircraft. Large size radars often evoke concern in communities living around them. However, because its power is radiated over a large surface area, the power densities associated with these systems vary between 10 and 100 W/m2 within the site boundary. Outside the site boundary RF field levels are usually unmeasurable without using sophisticated equipment. However, small military fire control radars on aircraft can be hazardous to ground personnel. These units have relatively high average powers (kW) and small area antennas, making it possible to have power densities up to 10 kW/m2. Members of the general public would not be exposed to these emissions because during ground testing of radars access to these areas by all personnel is prohibited. 

Marine radars can be found on small pleasure boats to large ocean going vessels. Peak powers of these systems can reach up to 30 kW, with average powers ranging from 1 to 25 W. Under normal operating conditions, with the antenna rotating, the average power density of the higher power systems within a metre of the antenna is usually less than 10 W/m2. 


Int J Occup Environ Health. 2000 Jul-Sep;6(3):187-93.
Cancer in radar technicians exposed to radiofrequency/microwave radiation: sentinel episodes.

Abstract; Controversy exists concerning the health risks from exposures to radiofrequency/microwave irradiation (RF/MW). The authors report exposure-effect relationships in sentinel patients and their co-workers, who were technicians with high levels of exposure to RF/MW radiation. Information about exposures of patients with sentinel tumors was obtained from interviews, medical records, and technical sources. One patient was a member of a cohort of 25 workers with six tumors. The authors estimated relative risks for cancer in this group and latency periods for a larger group of self-reported individuals. Index patients with melanoma of the eye, testicular cancer, nasopharyngioma, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, and breast cancer were in the 20-37-year age group. Information about work conditions suggested prolonged exposures to high levels of RF/MW radiation that produced risks for the entire body. Clusters involved many different types of tumors. Latency periods were extremely brief in index patients and a larger self-reported group. The findings suggest that young persons exposed to high levels of RF/MW radiation for long periods in settings where preventive measures were lax were at increased risk for cancer. Very short latency periods suggest high risks from high-level exposures. Calculations derived from a linear model of dose-response suggest the need to prevent exposures in the range of 10 - 100 microw/cm(2).


Adverse health effects of occupational exposure to radiofrequency radiation in airport surveillance radar operators
The rapidly increasing use of microwave radiation, has raised public concern about possible detrimental effects of non-ionizing radiation sources, which work in this frequency range.[,,] Radio Detection and Ranging (Radar) equipments send and transmit high-power radio frequency (RF) waves by producing a high-voltage and high frequency alternating electrical current. Radar workers are routinely exposed to pulsed high frequency electromagnetic fields (EMF), which are produced to locate and identify the presence, direction or range of airplanes, ships, control towers or other, usually moving objects. Nowadays, radar systems, which operate at RF between 300 MHz and 15 GHz, are widely used for navigation, aviation, national defense, weather forecasting, and even speed control (hand-held police radars). As radiations emitted by radar systems must travel long distances to detect objects, the power must be relatively high at transmission site. Recent studies conducted on the health effects of occupational exposure to military radar radiations indicate some detrimental effects such as induction of oxidative stress (decreased glutathione concentration vs. increased concentration of malondialdehyde),[] reduced fertility,[] increased level of DNA damage and chromatid breaks.[] Furthermore, some non-EMF hazards such as radar equipment-related electrical injury are also reported.[] There are also reported risks such as increased incidence of hemolymphatic cancers that can be caused by microwaves generated by radars or ionizing radiation produced by electronic devices producing the microwaves.[


Causes of death among Belgian professional military radar operators: A 37-year retrospective cohort study
The RR for cancer increased with decreasing age and suggested that the RR for cancer increased with the duration of stay in radar battalions. In conclusion, exposure of professional military personnel to anti-aircraft radars that existed in Western Europe from the 1960s until the 1990s may have resulted in an increase in the incidence of hemolymphatic cancers. It remains to be established whether this increase is due to microwaves generated by radars or ionizing radiation produced by electronic devices producing the microwaves

LORAN radiation
U.S. Coast Guard Veterans who worked at LORAN (Long Range Navigation) stations from 1942 to 2010 may have been exposed to X-ray radiation from high voltage vacuum tubes.


Pulsed RF fields: Exposure to very intense pulsed RF fields, similar to those used by radar systems, has been reported to suppress the startle response and evoke body movements in conscious mice. In addition, people with normal hearing have perceived pulse RF fields with frequencies between about 200 MHz and 6.5 GHz. This is called the microwave hearing effect. The sound has been variously described as a buzzing, clicking, hissing or popping sound, depending on the RF pulsing characteristics. Prolonged or repeated exposure may be stressful and should be avoided where possible.


Accidental exposure to electromagnetic fields from the radar of a naval ship: a descriptive study
If an ‘over-exposure’ occurs from a radar beam, this can provide a warm feeling on the exposed part of the body. Warm feeling passes to pain if the exposure is strong enough — and this can make the exposed person move out of the beams. High exposure can cause immediate nausea and vomiting. Headache and tiredness are described as immediate effects as well, but it is also mentioned in the literature that these symptoms might not be caused by the direct effect of the fields [5, 6]. Heating above 43C may cause coagulation of the proteins and lead to cell damage, for example burns of the skin or changes of the lens in the eyes [7]. Eyes are very vulnerable, because they do not have an adequate cooling from blood circulation 
https://www.researchgate.net/publication/259652675_Accidental_exposure_to_electromagnetic_fields_from_the_radar_of_a_naval_ship_a_descriptive_study [accessed Oct 12 2017].


Dr. Mercola Discusses the Dangers of Electromagnetic Radiation

#drmercola #mercola #health #electromagneticradiation #cellphoneradiation #electromagneticexposure #electromagneticfields

Video; https://www.facebook.com/Steven.salinas04/videos/210244675709630/


Electromagnetic Hypersensitivity (EHS) | Smart Grid Awareness

The “16×9” investigative report mentioned in the above video is actually available on this website at the following webpage:

Also, please note an updated posting on the topic of heart rate variability due to exposure to RF radiation:

Interview with Dr. Gro Harlem Brundtland

Despite the numerous reports of EHS and the WHO’s commentary that the majority of individuals who claim EHS symptoms cannot detect EMF exposure, it is somewhat ironic that Dr. Gro Harlem Brundtland, former Director General of the World Health Organization and Convener of the World Commission on Environment and Development, openly claimed in 2002 to be afflicted with EHS. Dr. Gro Harlem Brundtland took office as Director General of the World Health Organization on July 21, 1998. Her term of office ended on July 21, 2003. Brundtland, a medical doctor, also served as the prime minister of Norway for more than ten years in the 1980s and 1990s.

What follows in this section is a translation of the cover story in Norwegian newspaper “Dagbladet” of March 9, 2002:

Mobile phone radiation gives Gro Harlem Brundtland headaches.
WHO Director-General Gro Harlem Brundtland (62), gets headaches from talking on a mobile phone. That is not enough: People in her proximity must turn their phones off in order to prevent discomfort.


"The probable effects of radio frequency radiation on the human body are discussed, and various published papers describing the effects of such radiation on biological subjects are briefly reviewed. The susceptibility of the head, the eye, and the testis to RF radiation is given separate coverage. Ionizing radiation produced by RF generating equipment is also discussed.

The Soviet scientist, Gordon,has reported that after irradiation with microwaves at low power density (5 to 10 mw/cmz), the delay between stimulus and conditioned reflex in dogs increased, and the employment of a larger stimulus became necessary. In addition, histological examinations of brain tissues revealed physiological and chemical changes" such-as globular concentrations of acetylcholine along nerve fibers. 

Military radars are generally designed to operate in what is known as the "microwave" region of the radio-frequency spectrum. This range includes frequencies from approximately 1000 mc to 30,000 mc or higher. Expressed in wavelengths, this region is from 30 cm to I cm.

Considerable impetus was given to the study of the biological effects of microwave radiation~and in particular to the possible injurious effects to the human body by an article by Dr. J. T. McLaughliln published in the May 1957 issue of the magazine, California Medicine, entitled, "Tissue Destruction and Death from Microwave Radia.`%½n (Radar). " The article was a case report on the death of a man who stood in the direct beam of a radar transmitter. In a few seconds the man had a sensation of heat; the heat became intolerable in less than a minute and he moved away from the antenna. Within 30 minutes he had acute abdominal pain and vomiting. 

Several operations were performed but he died within ten days from inflammation of the intestines attributed to destructive heat generated by the radar beam. It has not been possible to determine the power density involved in this particular case of exposure but it is believed that the 6249 magnetron and the APG-37 fire controt radar were involved. This equipment is capable of delivering 300 watts average power. The antenna size and configuration could not be determined.

The microwave region is considered to extend from the highest radio frequencies down to the ultra-high frequency band between 300 and 3,000 megacycles per second but radiation hazards may exist at any radio frequency capable of being absorbed by the body. The radio frequencies include eight regions corresponding to the eight decades of wavelength they occupy. 

The eight bands are as follows:


" Both radar and communication systems may produce hazardous electromagnetic power densities (average watts per sq cm). Radar systems are generally characterized by pulsed operation and scanning antenna beams, while communication systems are generally continuous wave in nature and usually have fixed antenna beams.


J. H. Vogelman of the Capehart Corporation has observed16 that two phenomena are present in the near field which contribute to errors in the determination of the actual field density to which a biological specimen is exposed and, in turn, introduce a questionable factor in the quantitative values for observed effects. The first effect is the cyclic variation in field density in the near field as one proceeds from the antenna aperture outward to the end of the near field region. The exact position of the specimen with respect to the antenna aperture will determine the ambient field density. Because the introduction of the specimen into the field moves the cyclic variation, it is almost impossible to predict the actual ambient field density within the near field for any but the simplest states suitable for exact or good approximate computation. 

At the same time, measurements of the field density in the near field may not suffice since the field variations are displaced to a different degree by the measuring instrument and the specimen. Where the measuring instrument may indicate a peak, the introduction of the specimen at the same point may result in a minimum of ambient field density. The second phenomenon which results from the introduction of a biological specimen into the near field of an antenna is an interaction between the specimen and the antenna. This results in an impedance mismatch as seen by the generator of the microwave power. This mismatch may result in a marked change in the power generated as well as in a change in oscillator frequency. These effects depend on the degree of sensitivity of the generator to standing waves and the proximity of the biological specimen to the antenna aperture. Accordingly, near field measurements of biological effects lack quantitative accuracy since the prediction of the ambient field density is both difficult and inaccurate.


Between the end of the near field and the beginning of the far field of a radar antenna thefte lies a transition zone in which the power density decreases with increasing distance but not in accordance with the inverse square law. This zone has been called the quasi-Fresnel, or "crossover" region. H. S. Overman of the U. S. Naval Weapons Laboratory'7 has proposed the following empirical equation for obtaining an approximation of the power density in the intermediate field: p = 0. 87 (w/).r) whe re p = power density r = distance from antenna X = wavelength of radiation w = average power delivered to antenna 


The power flow in a radar beam at a considerable distance away from the antenna, in what is generally called the "far fieldr may be thought of as confined within a cone which has its apex at the antenna. The apex angle of the cone is the "beam width. " The cross-sectional area of the beam varies with the square of the distance from the antenna; hence the power density, which is the power per unit area, will be proportional to the reciprocal of the square of the distance, i. e., it will conform to the inverse square law. In practice, however, the power radiated by an antenna is not all confined within the conical beam. Some is radiated just outside the nominal limits of the beam and some in side lobes. In addition, the power density is about twice as great on the beam axis as at the edges. The larger the antenna, the higher the "concentration" of power. This "concentrating" action of an antenna is called the antenna "gain. " A large antenna with a narrow beam thus has a large gain. The "gain" is a pure number which can always be furnished for each antenna.

THE ION ORB INDICATOR H. R. Meahl of the General Electric Company recently announced the development of an ion orb, omnidirectional, fixed level, visual indicator of radio frequency field strength. The indicator responds to peak power and consists of a glass sphere filled with a combination of helium and neon gas. An ion orb 4 inches in diameter will glow red and orange in a field of 10 to 12 volts rms per cm. Orbs I inch in diameter will glow at 30 to 34 volts rms per cm. 

Meahl feels that these indicators will be useful in RF field strength hazard alarm systems over the range of 50 to 500 mc and probably to 3,000 mc. They weigh only 5 ounces, are omnidirectional, and had stable characteristics over a period of one year under field conditions in the tropics. They also operated satisfactorily after overloads which heated the glass to approximately 50" C. OTHER 


Even after the radiation to which a subject has been exposed has been measured, the problem is only half solved. In the first place, not 18 every subject is affected by radiation to the same extent. Frequency of the radiation is also an important factor. At some frequencies. people with thick layers of subcutaneous fat absorb radiation readijy,. while at other frequencies, the fat acts as a virtual insulator. 

Ultra-high frequencies pass through the body and can heat internal body tissues but layers of fat will obstruct the radiation. With microwaves, the problem becomes more difficult. Some of the microwave energy is reflected at the body surface -- the amount of reflection depending on the body surfaces, the polarization of the energy, and the intervening medium between the generator and the subject. Microwave energy can be readily absorbed by the skin and fatty tissue directly beneath the skin and will not heat the body tissues underneath directly but as a result of stepped-up circulation of the blood. 

Thus, although the dielectric properties of body tissues are well known and have been measured with some degree of accuracy, we cannot predict the effects of radiation on an individual without knowing a great deal about his physical make-up. Moreover, in considering nonthermal effects, the problem becomes even more complex. Van Everdingen has sought to eliminate this problem by inserting, subcutaneously, small capsules of glycogen of precise concentration and viscosity. The glycogen shows a rotation of its optical plane of polarization, which can be measured with a polarimeter. This procedure is obviously unsuited for use with human subjects, although it did provide accurate dosage measurement for test animals.


A. H. Frey of the General Electric Advanced Electronics Center recently announcedZ" the discovery that the human auditory system can respond to electromagnetic energy in at least a portion of the radio-frequency spectrum. The response is instantaneous and occurs at power levels as low as 0. 4 milliwatt per cmZ average power. 

Responses have been obtained from 1OO to 3,000 mc. Subjects reported the perception of a buzzing or knocking sound. Deaf subjects appeared to perceive the sound as readily as those with normal hearing. Frey reported the following eight points of experimental evidence in connection with this phenomena: 

I. When the lower half of the head was covered, including the maxillary dental area, the RF sound could be perceived. When the top half of the head was covered, the RF sound ceased. Thus, fillings in the teeth were not implicated. 

2. With the transmitter antenna enclosed in a radome and not visible to the subject, the antenna was rotated at various rates. Thus, the RF beam swept by the subject several times a minute, The subjects invariably perceived when they were swept by the RF beam. 

3. Subjects were blindfolded and the beam was broken repeatedly in an irregular fashion by interposing a screen shield between the source and the subject. The subjects' report of when the sound was "on" and "offW correlated perfectly with the unshielded and shielded conditions. 

4. Subjects were placed in pairs in the RF beam. 


Experiments to determine the effects of close-range exposure of the brain of a monkey to high intensity radio waves were conducted by the National Institute of Health in March 1959 and the results of the experiments were reported by Dr. Pearce Bailey, Director of the National Institute of Neurological Diseases and Blindness, in budget hearings before the House of Representatives Appropriations Subcommittee. 

In the experiments, the monkey was fastened to a chair in a sitting position inside a drum-shaped cage which served as a resonating cavity to greatly strengthen the electromagnetic energy within the cage. A radio antenna fitted to the top of the cage pointed toward the monkey's head, in line with-his brain stem - the central vital portion of the brain. The antenna was excited by an AN/GRC-27 ultra-high frequency transmitter which operates in the 225 to 400 mc range and has a peak output of about 100 watts. 

When the transmitter was turned on, the monkey was apparently unaffected for a few seconds, then it became drowsy. After a minute or so, the monkey became agitated, moving its head from side to side. In another minute, there appeared unmistakable signs of some impending disturbance in the vital centers of the brain. Finally, the monkey was thrown into a major convulsion a few seconds before death occurred. Examination of the brains of ten monkeys which died in the experiments revealed no pathological cause of death. Another ten monkeys, whose exposure was cut short of death, showed symptoms which resembled those of Parkinson's disease in human beings.


Further experiments in which the heads of monkeys were irradiated with microwave energy were reported in 1959 by Bach, Baldwin,and Lewis. 30 The animals used in the experiments were young Macaca rhesus monkeys mostly weighing 7 to 10 pounds. The usual exposure period was from 2 to 10 minutes. The shortest exposure leading to death was 2 minutes and 55 seconds. 

The longest single exposure (in the horizontal head position) was about 3 hours without noticeable effect on the animal. The ultra-high frequency energy was supplied by a Collins T17 AGR transmitter which is a 100-watt ground-to-air transmitter operating in the range from 225. 0 to 399. 9 mc. Most of the exposures were to continuous wave radiation, although 100 per cent modulation with a 500 and 1, 000 cycle sine wave was also employed. A crude form of pulsing, by overmodulation, was also done in a limited number of exposures.

Behavior of Subjects During Exposure 

The animals displayed arousal and drowsiness which were cyclic in nature. During the drowsy periods they were motionless, tending to keep the whole body in a fixed position. This pattern was usually seen within 60 seconds of initiation of the exposure. The animal then might stare with a wide fixed gaze. 

Then agitation beginning with rapid side-to-side head movements, would occur. These movements often ceased abruptly and the animal would be quiet and unresponsive to touch, pain, light, and sometimes to sound stimuli. Alternating periods of arousal and drowsiness usually occurred. Three animals were deeply anesthetized with phenobarbital, being quite unresponsive to pinching of the Achilles tendon and to deep pin pricks. 

However, they could be made to move about in the chair within a minute after radiation began. By alternately switching the transmitter on and off, one of these animals was brought to the point of successive arousal and complete relaxation, in a 20-second cycle, reacting like a puppet on the end of a string. This particular effect was elicited most readily at 389 mc.

Eye Signs

With continued exposure, the animal would develop sagging upper eyelids of both eyes. Suddenly he would open his eyes and stare upward. The pupils were usually small and equal. Then the eyes would begin to move independently, and the pupils would dilate. Often one pupil would be larger than the other and in some instances lose its roundness. 

The pupils would then dilate and constrict rapidly. Rapid, involuntary oscillation of the eyeballs would then occur, accompanied by rapid blinking. The involuntary oscillation of the eyeballs often persisted for several minutes after cessation of radiation. Accompanying the eye signs were autonomic changes. The skin of the face would often become flushed and then pale. The nose often became pink and the respiratory rate increased. Salivation and lacrimation were also observed. 

With further exposure, the rapid blinking progressed to clonic movements of the eyes, bilateral clonic movements of the other facial muscles, a severe grimace which pulled back the lips from the teeth, clonic flexion of the neckand symmetrical clonic movements of the upper extremities, trunk, and lower extremities in that order. The onset of the rapid blinking and the grimace which heralded the generalized seizure was always a serious sign....

Motor Loss 

Two animals developed paralysis of all four limbs. Two others developed weakness of the upper extremities and several developed an inability to coordinate voluntary muscular movements for varying periods. In all of these there also developed lesions of the occipital muscles and overlying skin. One animal developed a right facial weakness with a concurrent anesthesia in the distribution of the upper two branches of the trigeminal nerve.


Searle, Imig, and Dahlen of the University of Iowa conducted experiments on dogs anesthetized with sodium pentobarbital and exposed to 2, 450 mc-cw radiation for periods of one to seven hours. 3 1 A 32 clinical, microwave diathermy machine (Raytheon Microtherm, Model CDM-lOwith "ICdirector) was used to supply the microwave energy. Healthy, mongrel dogs weighing I I to 15 kg were anesthetized with 35 mg/kg of sodium pentobarbital and placed in a prone position on a light wooden frame. The head was supported by a gauze sling under the mandible. 

The rectangular director was placed with its long axis parallel to the midline of the calvarium. In this position the antenna was 5 cm from the surface of the. scalp and a near field or, at most, cross-over field, was considered to exist at the scalp. Power densities calculated on this basis are approximations. Depending upon the percentage of the maximum power output of the diathermy unit used, the calculated field intensities at the scalp varied from 0.5 to 0.8 watt/cm?. 

Copper-constantan thermocouples were used for temperature measurements which were read out on a multi-channel recorder. Intracranial temperatures were obtained by passing the thermocouples into the brain through small holes drilled in the skull. The cisterna magna temperature was obtained by passing a thermocouple through a hollow needle inserted between the first and second cervical vertebrae. Thus, simultaneous recording of temperature was obtained from the frontal lobe (thermocouple inserted through the frontal bone to one side of the midline), the mid-brain (thermocouple inserted from the side through the temporal bone) and the cisterna magna in close association with the medulla and roof of the fourth ventricle. Rectal temperatures were similarly obtained at a point about 6 cm inside the external anal sphincter. Skin temperatures were measured on the irradiated scalp surface. Temperature measurements were made with the microwave generator turned off.

Pressure transducers with amplifiers and recorders were used to measure spinal fluid pressure from the cisterna magna and arterial pre3sure from the femoral artery. Heart and respiratory rates were obtained from the blood pressure or spinal fluid pressure tracings. The power output of the generator was monitored or varied to prevent, as nearly as possible, skin damage. Experiments have shown that about 42" C is the threshold of skin temperature above which, with the type of radiation used, thermal damage to the skin will occur over periods of exposure of about 21/Z hours. Ten dogs were subjected to power densities averaging 0.5 watt/cm2 at the scalp for 150 minutes. The purpose of the experiment was to determine the pattern of temperature changes at the three intracranial sites and at the relatively distant, but physiologically associated, site in the rectum. 

The results are shown in Table V.

As seen in Table V, the temperature was increased more rapidly in the cisterna magna than in any of the other sites where it was measured; with the exception of the skin. Although the temperatures measured in the brain, cistern, and rectum were initially similar, the temperature in the cistern was increased more rapidly and to a greater extent than in the other locations during the irradiation.

The decrease in blood pressure which occurred near the end of the exposure could be attributed almost entirely to an effect resulting from the irradiation. The decrease in blood pressure which occurred unaccompanied by a decrease in heart rate suggested a decrease in cardiac output, a net vascular dilation, a reduced blood volume, or elements of all three factors. This shockline trend occurred without any visible sign of central nervous motor excitation of a convulsive nature.


Dr. M. L. Keplinger of the University of Miami has reported1 on animal experimentation involving irradiation of the heads of rats with microwave energy at 2, 400 mc. A pulsed magnetron was used having an average power output of about 20 watts. Signs of Intoxication Obvious signs of microwave effects were observed in rats exposed on the head at close range (3. 8 cm from the antenna). 

The rat was 35 immediately aware of some type of pain stimulus and tried to move to avoid it. There was squealing and struggling within 15 to Z5 seconds. The ears were hyperemic at first, then turned dark in color. First, second, and third degree burns were eventually produced on the skin directly in front of the antenna. 

The most conspicuous effect was stimulation of the central nervous system with muscle spasms, tremors, and chronic convulsions. The tail stood up almost straight. This stimulation was so marked that it aroused a rat from deep surgical pentobarbital anesthesia. Periods of central stimulation alternated with periods of depression. 

However, the periods of depression grew shorter as exposure time increased. When the rat was moved farther away from the antenna (3 in. or 7.6 cm), there was a similar centra. nervous stimulation when the rat was exposed on the head, but when the lumbar region was exposed at this time distance, central stimulation did not then become apparent. 

It is also interesting that the approximate lethal exposure time for a rat exposed on the head at a distance of 7.6 cm was 43 minutes; while it was 24 minutes for one exposed at the same distance in the lumbar region. There was no cutaneous burning as the distance was increased to 10 cm or greater. At 1Z cm or more, the obvious signs of microwave effects (tremors, etc.) were very slight, but redness of ears and nose was still produced.

Gross Post-Mortem Findings 

Exposure of the head in the near field (at 5. 3 cm) caused hyperemia (congestion of blood) with petechial and some diffuse hemorrhages in the tissues under the skin. The skin was discolored (greenish-gray). Muscles of the head and neck (directly under the antenna) looked "cooked.' The capillaries of the cerebral cortex and meninges were distended with blood and *leaking.' In the lungs, there was marked congestion with hemorrhagic areas apparently caused by thrombic emboli. The heart was contracted and filled with blood clots.

Results of 15-Minute Exposures 

Six days following 15-minute microwave exposure, there were severe third-degree burns of the scrotal skin. The testes showed many opaque areas, hemorrhage, and collapse. Microscopically there was extensive coagulation necrosis of the seminiferous tubules. Interstitial and vascular tissues were also involved in the necrosis. 

Twenty-nine days following 15-minute exposures the scrotal skin was healing. The testes were fibrotic and reduced in size. Microscopically, the tubular outlines were devoid of germinal epithelium. The interstitial tissue contained numerous fibroblasts. Very few Leydig cells were present. 

Results of 10-Minute Exposures 

Six days following 10-minute microwave exposure, the scrotal skin showed small areas of third-degree burn. The testes were small with a few opaque areas. Microscopically, the testes showed focal areas of coagulation necrosis. The majority of tubules showed moderate to severe degeneration with only occasional normal tubules present. 

Of marked interest was the apparent normal appearance of the interstitial ti s sue. Thirteen days following 10-minute microwave exposures, the scrotal skin burns were healed. The testes were small, with opaque areas present. Microscopically, the process of repair was in progress. Tubular debris was not present. Tubules were showing regeneration of cellular elements with active spermatogenesis present. Interstitial tissue showed hyperplasia with normal appearing cellular elements. Twenty and twenty-nine days following 10-minute exposures, the histologic picture of the testes was essentially the same as thirteen days after exposure.

Results of 5-Minute Exposures 

Six days following 5-minute microwave exposure, most animals showed no damage to the scrotal skin. A few animals showed small second-degree burns. The testes were enlarged with marked pallor. Microscopically, all testes showed moderate to severe edema. Most testes showed no tubular damage. A few testes had small areas of tubular degeneration. Interstitial tissue was apparently unaffected. Thirteen days following 5-minute exposure, the scrotal skin was normal; and grossly, the testes appeared normal. Microscopically, 39 the testes showed slight to moderate edema.. The tubules and interstitial tissue were normal in appearance. Twenty-nine days following 5-minute exposures, the testes were histologically normal.


After 10-Minute Exposure In the 10-minute exposure groups, which showed Zn-65 uptake 50 per cent below normal, the administration of testosterone restored Zn-65 uptake to control levels, whereas the administration of gonadotrophin was completely ineffective. Dorsolateral prostate weights, depressed in the microwave-exposed, untreated rats, were restored to normal limits by testosterone, but not by gonadotrophin. 

The experiment indicated twofold damage as follows: a. Damage to the pituitary gland indicated by insufficient gonadotrophin output. b. Damage to the testicular interstitial tissue indicated by the failure of the tissue to fully respond to the hormone being elaborated. After 5-Minute Exposure In the 5-minute exposure studies, which showed Zn-65 uptake depressed 45 per cent from normal, the administration of either gonadotrophin or testosterone restored the Zn-65 uptake to control levels. 

The experiment indicated that both the prostate and the interstitial tissue of the testes were able to function, and that the cause of the 45 lowered Zn-65 uptake was due to a lack of pituitary gonadotrophin indicating damage to the pituitary gland. Dorsolateral prostate weights, although 


The next question investigated by Gunn, Gould, and Anderson was whether the structural changes noted in the testes, and the endocrine disturbances seen following exposures to microwaves, were really due only to thermal effects or due to a combined thermal plus some unknown effect inherent in the microwave range used. In order to explore the question, simultaneous experiments were set up to compare the effects following microwave and infrared exposures. 

One group of rats was exposed to microwaves for five minutes, at the end of which time the intratesticular temperature developed was 41 C. Another group of rats was exposed to infrared for five minutes. The distance from the infrared lamp to the scrotal area was so adjusted that within five minutes of exposure an identical maximum intratesticular temperature of 41"C was developed. Two weeks following exposure, both groups were injected with tracer doses of Zn-65, the Zn-65 uptake in the dorsolateral prostate was determined, and the testes were examined grossly and microscopically. 

The histologic appearance of the testes of microwave and infrared exposed groups was identical. The only histologic alteration noted was a slight edema. The results of the Zn-65 uptake studies showed a 45 per cent fall in Zn-65 uptake in the microwave-exposed group, denoting a break in the pituitary-testes-prostate endocrine chain. In the infrared-exposed group, however, Zn-65 uptake was not altered from control levels, indicating that at this temperature range there was no damage to the male endocrine system.

Thes" experiments indicated that there is a marked difference in the actions of microwaves of 24, 000 mc and of infrared on the male endocrine system. The results are supported by the work of Steinberger and Dixon 3 and Elfving in the same field and suggest an atherrmal effect of microwaves.


The human eye is one of the few organs in the body which can be exposed to radiation directly rather than through intervening skin and varying amounts of adipose tissue. For this reason, and because of its particular structure, the eye is particularly susceptible to damage from microwave radiation. The vitreous fluid contained in the eyeball reacts to heat in much the same manner as the white of an egg in that it becomes opaque and the process is irreversible. 

The crystalline lens of the eye has been shown to be peculiarly susceptible to the effects of radiated energy, whether ionizing, infrared, or radio frequency, all of which cause the development of opacities (cataracts) in this normally transparent component of the eye. Considerable experimental work has been conducted in connection with the study of experimental radiation cataracts induced by microwave radiation. 

One of the primary investigators in this particular area has been Dr. R. L. Carpenter of the Department of Biology, Tufts University. Other investigators who have made important contributions include Richardson, Duane and Hines, Williams, Monahan, Nicholson and Aldrich, Daily, Wakim, Herrick, Parkhill, and Benedict. The reports made by Carpenter in 195837 and 1959V are particularly comprehensive.

The experiments of Carpenter were performed with rabbits. Rabbits were chosen as experimental subjects because the diameter of the rabbit eye is approximately three-fourths, and its volume approsimately one-third that of the human eye. In addition, the body temperture of the rabbit, measured rectally, is 38.70 C (101. 6 F), compared to the normal human rectal temperature of 37. 5" C (99.6 'F). 

Carpenter's microwave source was manufactured by Raytheon and was based on their Model CDM-4 Microtherm with additional circuitry to provide either continuous or pulsed wave at a frequency of 2450 mc. The output could be pulsed at duty cycles of 0.5 per cent to 66 per cent. The pulse could be varied between 50 microseconds and 2000 microseconds and the pulse repetition rate between 140 and 2200 per second. 

The antenna used was a Microtherm Director "CO, a corner reflector type. The instrument was powered from a voltage stabilized line. 48 I A directional couple.- in the coaxial cable to the atenna permitted leading off a small, known fraction of the power output to a HewlettPackard No. 430C microwave power meter and thus provided for contaut monitoring of power. An S-ba•d silicon microwave diode on the back wall of the exposure chamber was connected to a Tektromw oscitlograph for checking the pulse width, shape and amplitude.

Carpenter felt that these results suggest that if the cataractogenic factor of microwave radiation is one that initiates a chain of events in the lens, the visible and end result of which in an opacity, this factor must initially require an adequate power density acting for a sufficient duration of time in order to start the chain of events. 

If either the power density or the duration are less than a certain threshold value, then the damage done to the lens is not irreparable and recovery can take place provided that sufficient time elapses before a subsequent, similar insult. In these experiments, it appears that the interval necessary for recovery after the damage done by a threeminute exposure at Z80 mw/cm3 must be greater than 4 days, but need not be longer than one week. 

Carpenter emphasized that this statement applies only to the conditions described, namely, a three-minute exposure at Z80 mw/cmz. It has previously been shown that if the exposure period is four minutes at this power density, then lens opacities may result from two exposures given a week apart or from two or three exposures separated by two-week intervals. It has not yet been determined what the requisite recovery period must be following a 4- minute exposure at this power density. 

Carpenter referred to the "cataractogenic factor of microwave radiation" but was not prepared to state what this factor may be. It has been quite generally assumed that the effect of microwave -radiation on living tissue is entirely a thermal one, an effect of the heat that results from absorption of RF energy by the tissue. 

It is certainly true that localized heating occurs as a result of absorption of microwave energy, yet one is reminded that thermal effects usually occur at or above a specific temperature, such as the melting point, boiling point, flash point, etc., and not as the result of intermittent excursions to temperatures below critical value. It is possible to conceive of a thermal effect which could be the result of either a high temperature for a short time or a lower temperature for a longer time; but it is difficult to imagine the same effect resulting from a low temperature occurring for a short time but repeated at widely separated intervals.

At a power density of 280 mw/cm , the shortest single exposure period which will cause a lens opacity is 5 minutes, at which time the temperature of the vitreous body at the posterior pole of the lens has reached 49.3 C. At the end of a 3-minute exposure period, however, this temperature is only 47. Z" C. Inasmuch as this duration of exposure, if repeated at four-day intervals, causes a lens opacity to form, but if repeated at weekly intervals has no effect, then one can support a "wthermal effect" viewpoint only by assuming that a lesser temperature 51 increase may be cataractogenic if it occurs frequently enough. 

Such an assumption would be difficult to support, for if the temperature is further reduced and the frequency of its occurrence increased, the constant normal body temperature will eventually be reached which is certainly not a cause of cataract. A cumulative thermal effect as the cause of n4crowave induced opacities becomes even less probable in the light of further experiments. 

Recognizing the valid criticism that Z80 mw/cm' is still, from the biological viewpoint, a fairly high power density, and that a vitreous temperature of 47. ZC, even though occurring ever so briefly, is, nevertheless, well outside the range of a rabbit's normal or even its pathological variation, experiments were undertaken in which the eye would be repeatedly exposed to radiation at relatively low power densities. 

Having ascertained that at a power density of 120 mw/cmz the minimum was 35 minutes, eyes were exposed at this power density for periods of 30 minutes repeated at two-day intervals. Of the four experiments completed, lens opacities developed after two such exposures in one case and after three exposures in three cases. In a rabbit under sodium Nembutal anesthesia, the temperature of the vitreous body at the end of 30 minutes of irradiation at this power density was 44*C.

A point worth mentioning with regard to these experiments was that at 120 mw/cmZ, the animals remained quiet in the microwave field without anesthesia. In the four experiments, two animals were irradiated with anesthesia. In these two cases, therefore, we can be sure that the heat-dissipating vascular system was not functionally affected by an anesthetic and that the ocular temperature was surely not higher than 44"C and was probably less than that. 

The animals did not appear to be experiencing any discomfort whatever. Carpenter continued hi. series of experiments to include daily exposures of the eye to one hour of continuous wave radiation with the power density reduced to 80 mw/cmz and in some cases to 40 mw/cma, without anesthesia. Of the three experiments attempted at the 80 mw/cml level, two animals died accidentally of causes not ascribable to the radiation. 

The third animal was irradiated for an hour each day for five consecutive days each week, this schedule being maintained until a total of 19 hours of irradiation had been given. At that time, slit-lamp and ophthalmoscopic examinations were negative; the lens was clear and 52 without sign of opacity. Examined 13 days later, however, the irradiated eye showed a well developed cataract in the posterior cortex. 

The non-irradiated eye was normal. It is of interest to note that in the anesthetized animal, one hour of exposure to continuous wave radiation at 80 mw/cmý raises the temperature of the vitreous body to 42. 8C, which is only 4. 1*C above body temperature. Carpenter felt that if further experiments at the 80 mw/cm3 level also result in cataracts, it will have to be concluded that if they are induced as a thermal effect of microwave radiation, then it is a thermal effect requiring neither a critical temperature nor even a marked elevation of temperature in the tissue.


With pulsed radiation, the eye can be subjected to rapidly repeated peaks of high microwave power while the average power during the exposure period re'mains relatively low. Because the thermal flux is identified with the average power alone, Carpenter hoped, through a series of experiments, to discover whether microwave energy might exert other than a thermal effect. He reported in 195837 on the first 16 of his initial group of Z5 experiments then in progress. 

In these experiments, the eye was exposed to pulsed microwave radiation at an average power density of 140 mw/cmZ with pulse peaks of either Z80 or 560 mw/cm'. The duty cycle employed was therefore 50 per cent or Z5 per cent; the latter being the lowest duty cycle he could obtain with the equipment then being used. In 6Z per cent of the experiments, lens opacities resulted from exposure periods and associated ocular temperatures significantly less than those required for induction of opacities by continuous waveradiation of identical average power. 

He therefore suggested that the cataractogenic effect of microwave radiation might not be primarily a thermal one, and advised giving attention to peak powers of the microwave field when assessing the possibility of hazards to personnel. Carpenter felt that further experiments along this line would be fruitful if he could employ pulsed radiation having a greater spread between peak power and average power. 

This would demand much lower duty cycles than he was then able to attain. He therefore had his equipment redesigned to allow duty cycles as low as 0. 5 per cent. He reported in 1959' that with this equipment he irradiated 15 animals, using average power densities ranging from 1Z0 mw/cmadown to 40 mw/cm3 53 and with accompanying peak powers of 400 mw/cm up to 800 mw/cm2 . 

Under these conditions, opacities developed in 53 per cent of the experiments. For example. opacities occurred after 60-minute or longer exposures of the eye to pulsed microwave energy when the average power density was only 80 mw/cmZ but the peak power was 400 mw/cmZ. A 45-minute exposure had no effect. He considered it to be significant that at the end of a 1-hour exposure period at the 80 mw/cmZ average power density, the temperature within the eye had risen to 4Z. 8 C, only 4 degrees above body temperature. 

He also noted that this same power density has no effect when applied as continuous wave radiation for a I-hour period. He felt that these results pointed to peak power as being an important factor in causing opacities to develop when the eye is exposed to pulsed microwave radiation.


Lens opacities induced by microwave radiation and those caused by ionizing radiation are similar in several respects. Typically, both develop in the posterior subcapsular cortex; changes occur initially in the region of the posterior suture; and frequently the opacity takes the form of striate masses concentric with the equator, which later migrate axialward to form ring-shaped cataracts. One marked difference is in respect to their latent periods. 

Cogan and Donaldson have shown " that after single doses of IZOO to 1500 r. of X-ray at 1500 KV, opacities develop in the lens after Z5 to 30 days. In contrast, Carpenter found that following exposure to microwave radiation, opacities appeared after latent periods of I to 8 days, the average time being 3-1/Z days. In order to test whether these two types of radiation could complement each other in their cataractogenic effects, the eyes of ZZ rabbits were exposed to X-ray of ZOO KV. 

Both eyes received equal doses of 1500 r. Either 24 hours or one week later, the right eye was exposed to a single,. subthreshold dose of microwave radiation (Z80 or 352 mw/cmr for 3-1/Z minutes). In all of these experiments, opacities appeared in both eyes at the same time and were of similar degree. Under the conditions of the experiment, therefore, microwave radiation did not act in any complementary or supplementary manner to shorten the latent period for formation of X-ray induced opacities, nor did it affect the extent of the damage to the lens by x-irradiation.

This view was upheld until the levels of glutathione and ascorbic acid were examined. Glutathione occurs in the lens in a higher concentration than in any other body tissue. Ascorbic acid is another reducing substance also found in high levels in this ocular tissue. The reason these two substances are found in such significant quantities and the role they play in the physiology of the lens are facts not as yet understood. 

Ascorbic acid and glutathione in the lens appeared to be more sensitive to microwave radiation than any of the other chemical constituents studied. However, the results of a large number of experiments conclusively showed that the drop in ascorbic acid occurred before any change in glutathione. Furthermore, the fall in ascorbic acid was observed before the development of opacification. The eyes of rabbits were exposed for 8 minutes and removed 18 hours after irradiation. The lenses of the microwave-exposed eyes were transparent, had a normal content of glutathione, but had a substantially lowered level of ascorbic acid. 

The results seemed to indicate that ascorbic acid is the most sensitive chemical constituent to be affected by microwave irradiationfof the lens. This conclusion is noteworthy because in other forms of experimentally produced cataracts, such as in ionizing irradiation and diabetic cataracts, a decrease in glutathione content has been shown to be the first observable change. The distinguishing feature of microwave cataracts, thenis the fall in ascorbic acid con-tent as the first sign of damage.

During the exposure period the possibility existed that an increase in temperature was the cause of the observed drop in ascorbic acid. This compound, being fairly unstable.could conceivably be affected by the increase in temperature incurred upon exposure of the lens to microwave energy. Experiments were therefore designed to check this possibility. 

Removal of the lenses one-half hour after the microwave exposure revealed that no change in the ascorbic acid content had occurred. This finding ruled out the possibility that an increase in temperature during exposure was the cause of the disappearance of ascorbic acid. The drop in the level of ascorbic acid was not observed 6 hours after irradiation, but was found in lenses removed 18 hours after exposure. This indicated that the decrease in ascorbic acid which results from microwave irradiation of the lens does not occur immediately after exposure but that it develops after a latent period of six to eighteen hours.


Nyrop exposed gartariurn coli in a liquid medium to the modulated current and reported that 99. 5 per cent of the bacteria were killed in 7 seconds when the field strength was 230 volts/cm. At 288 volts/cm, the time required was only 4 seconds. He reported no rharked difference whether the treatment took place between 12"C and 40"C or between 40" C and 60" C. 

Using an improved apparatus, he reported 99.6 per cent of the bacteria killed in 5 seconds at 205 volts/cm and 99. 98 per cent in 10 seconds using the same field strength. A similar effect produced by heat would have required 600 seconds at 600 C. Foot-and-mouth disease virus was completely inactivated when exposed to 260 volts/cm for 10 seconds with the temperature not above 36"C. The virus was completely inactivated in 2.4 seconds when exposed to a field strength of 480 volts/cm. To inactivate the same virus by heat required 60 hours at a temperature of 370 C.

In experiments with tissue cultures, Nyrop demonstrated that it was possible to kill the tissue in 300 seconds when using the modulated current with a field strength of 22 volts/cm without raising the temperature of the tissue above 30"C. Of interest in the discussion of the effects of microwave energy on cell structures is the observation of W. J. V. Osterhout made in 19493; "It seems desirable to stress again the importance of the non-aqueous surface films of living cells. 

These structures, invisible under the highest magnification, play an all-important role. They are the seat of considerable electrical forces so that when a sufficient number of cells is in series, an e. m. f. of 500 volts may be available, as in the electric eel. The high electrical capacity and resistivity of the cell is due to them. They regulate the intake and outgo of all substances and thus control metabolism. If they are destroyed death ensues at once. The behavior of such films involves the little understood laws of surface chemistry and physics and deserves intensive study.

Also of interest is the statement of K. S. Cole nade in 194948. "It is well established not only that the interior of the living cell is very 60 different from the external inanimate environment in composition, structure and electric potential-, but also that these differences are maintained by a barrier at the surface which is necessary for the life of the cell .... The cell membrane is thought of as a 'leaky condenser'. All living cells have a membrane capacity of the order of one microfarad per square centimeter. The membrane has a thickness of about 30 angstroms."


Additional investigation has been made recently into possible nonthermal effects of electromagnetic fields by Teixeira-Pinto, Nejelski, Cutler, and Heller of the New England Institute for Medical Research at Ridgefield, Conn. Their work, published in 19604, was essentially a continuation of the investigations of Muth4, Krasny-Ergen' 5 , Liebesny 47 , and Schwan 46, and the later stu~dies of Wildervanck, Wakim, Herrickjand Krusen'4 using pulsed electromagnetic fields in place of continuous fields. 

From the standpoint of biological investigations, the pulsed field is preferable to a continuous field since the production of heat is minimized. Investigations into the possible significance of the alignment of particles into chains, as a non-thermal effect of high energy, high frequency fields in biological situations were reported in several preliminary papers from this New England laboratory. 50,51,52 

One of the phenomena noted was that motile bacteria were constrained in their motion in such electromagnetic fields. This observation led to the investigation of the response of various higher unicellular organisms. As a result, a series of interesting phenomena were observed.

As biological materials were studied, the frequency and voltage dependency became even more obvious. It had been previously pointed outs° that motile microorganisms, when placed in the fieldjwere constrained to travel along the electromagnetic lines of force instead of in random directions. 

These lines were portrayed by taking microphotographs of the alignment of inert particles in the field. The lines also occurred around a single electrode with the other electrode at a virtually infinite distance. As various frequencies were explored, it was found that most motile organisms traveled "east-west" (along the lines of force) at frequencies in the lower megacycle range for as long as the field was maintained. 

As the frequency was increased, however, the organisms pivoted 90" and moved Onorth-south' (across the lines of force). Different organisms took an east-west or north-south orientation at different frequencies. Thus, in a preparation of mixed Colpidium, Rhabdomonas incurva, and Astasia Klebsi at a frequency of 8. 5 megacycles, an inter-electrode peak-to-peak voltage of 309 volts per centimeter was required to have all of the organisms traveling in an eastwest direction. 

At 11.5 megacycles, it was necessary to use a voltage of 1016 per centimeter to have Rhabdomonas traveling east-west and Astasis north-south, while Colpidium was almost random. At 27 megacycles, only 582 volts per centimeter were required to have all of the 63 organisms traveling in a north-south direction. Hence, it was possible to use a frequency with a sample of mixed organisms where one type was going east-west and another type simultaneously going north-south

Efforts to define Specific east-west and north-south frequencies for different organisms were unsuccessful. For example, some Euglenae were placed between two microscope coverslips sealed with silicone grease. At 5 megacycles the Euglenae all *ent east-west, and at somewhat under 6 megacycles they made a 90" pivot and went northsouth. 

Twelve hours later, the organisms still responded with an eastwest orientation at 5 megacycles, but the frequency had to be raised to 18 megacycles to make the cells pivot and orient north-south. The only possible explanation for this response was the fact that the metabolites, either in the cells or media, had been produced and destroyed in the intervening hours. Obviously, this was an extremely small change which caused major differences in terms of frequency response. 

This type of varying optima for orientation was seen in virtually all living cells, depending upon differences in the age of the preparation or in the composition of the media. The difference in frequency response was probably due to a change in the dielectric constant of ions in the solution as a function of frequency. 54 In view of such sensitivity to very minute amounts of ions, the orientation frequencies could be determined only for a specific sample. In a given situation, in addition to east-west and north-south frequencies, "dead" and "confusion' frequencies could be observed. 

The "dead" frequencies were so named because of the lack of a visible respnse of a certain species at the same time, and in the same field, where other species were responding optimally. The "confusion" frequency range was so named because the organisms were obviously sensing the field; were disturbed, and sometimes spun around their centers like a pinwheel. In one case, at 100 megacycles, paramecia were seen to spin with tremendous velocity about their long axes while stopped or migrating in the north-south direction

Effects on Intracellular Structure 

An early observation in an immobilized paramecium showed that certain asymmetric cytoplasmic inclusions were oriented when the electromagnetic field was impressed and reverted at once to their original position when the field was released. This led to the assumption that it might be possible to affect selectively, as a function of frequency and voltage, certain structures within the cell. These initial observations on paramecia were subsequently verified with Amoeba proteus. 64 

When an unattached amoeba, w,-ith psuedopods extended so that it had a long axis, was placed in a S-m'negacycle field, it oriented eastwest while asymmetric cytoplasmi= inclusions oriented in the same direction. However, when the freqmuency was rapidly changed to about 27 megacycles, the amoeba immedtately pivoted 90" to point northsouth; but the cytoplasmic inclusiouis still oriented east-west within the organism.


It was reported by J. L. Spencer. and Cot G. M. Knauf of the U. S. Air Force in 1957 that there is a tendency among those concerned with the operation of electromagnetic radiating equipment to consider only radio frequency energy as dangerous, completely ignoring the equally dangerous ionizing radiation generated by the equipment under their control. 

The development of high-power radio frequency equipment is inevitably accompanied by large increases in emission of scattered ionizing energy, mostly in the form of X-rays and gamma rays. With radio frequency power tubes such as magnetrons, klystrons, and thyratrons there seems to be an almost linear relationship between applied plate voltage and the production of spurious X-rays. 

There is also a rather direct relationship between the physical characteristics of the power tube and its ability to emit ionizing rays. Those tubes which produce longer radio frequency wave lengths are potentially more hazardous for X-rays. Investigations of the nature of X-ray production by hydrogen thyratrons, for example, has revealed some alarming data. 

The X-ray emission from a thyratron operated with a constant plate voltage of 30 kv and a pulse repetition frequency of 100 per second proved to be less than ZO mr per hour. A change in the pulse repetition frequency to Z50 per second (other conditions remaining constant), resulted in a production of Z60 mr per hour. A further increase in the pulse repetition frequency to 500 per second caused a rise in X-radiation to about 4, 800 mr per hour. A significant factor in the tests is that the tubes were operating at considerably less than their capabilities.

Another source of potentially harmful ionizing radiation is the multitude of radioactive electron tubes that have come into common use. The U. S. Air Force inventories over 500 types of these tubes containini up to 10 microcuries of radioactive materials per tube. These material. include carbon 14, cesium 137, cobalt 60, nickel 63, and radium Z26. 

Adequate disposal procedures for these tubes present several recognized problems; however, of more probable concern to personnel are the compounded, high levels of radiation that exist in storage areas. Constant area and personnel dosimetry must be provided for at all levels. There are, basically two types of injuries that may be caused by ionizing radiation. 

The first is the somatic lesion or the injury caused 67 to the organism or system exposed to the radiation and which is not transmissable to subsequent generations. It has tong been known that ultraviolet, and ionizing radiation, such as X-rays or gamma rays, have a carcinogenic or cancer-producing action which may be produced by a single intense exposure or by chronic exposure. The source of the radiation may be external, or internal in the form of a radioactive isotope.

The second type of injury is the much more subtle genetic injury. Man is becoming increasingly aware of the disastrous effects overexposure to ionizing radiation may have on subsequent generations. By genetic injury is meant an alteration in inherited characteristics. These alterations or aberrations are usually referred to as mutations and they may be benign or malignant. Mutations represent a chemical change in the structure of the gene, the basic unit of inheritance. 

The exact nature of the change is as yet unknown. Mutations may occur spontaneously in normal individuals or may be induced by ionizing radiation or chemical agents such as mustard gas. The manner in which the maximum permissible dose of ionizing radiation has been reduced over the past 60 years is an indication of the serious effects upon mankind that this type of radiation can inflict. According to R. S. Stone," in 1902 Rollins suggested 10 r per day; in 1925 Lewis suggested 0.2 r per day; in 1936 the U. S. Advisory Committee recommended 0. 1 r per day; in 1950, ICRP recommended 0. 3 per weekland by 1957 the NCRP specified 5 rems per year. 

In considering ionizing radiation as produced by microwave generators, any increase in temperature induced by the radio frequency energy must be considered. Increased temperature may play an important background role in the degree of susceptibility to ionizing radiation. Even before it was discovered that X-rays caused mutations, it was shown that a temperature increase of 10"C more than doubles mutation frequency. 

A very excellent treatise on the generation and detection of pulsed X-rays from microwave sources was given by Mr. A. P. De Minco of the Rome Air Development Center at the 1960 Tri-Service Conference on the Biological Effects of Microwave Radiation and was published in the Proceedings of the Conference. 9 De Minco stated that many microwave generators now contain components whose X-radiation outputs far exceed any industrial X-ray generators and he discussed the generation and detection of the unwanted by-product as follows:


High-power electronic tubes, such as klystrons, magnetrons, traveling-wave tubes, and high-voltage hydrogen thyratrons, possess the basic physical parameters which allow them to act as powerful X-radiation generators; namely, a beam of electrons traveling at high speed toward an anode, or target, which is at a very high voltage and the subsequent stopping of these rapidly moving electrons. 
Devices employing these phenomena, and operating with an applied voltage of more than 15 kv, can be considered potential hazards. la high-power microwave generators, conditions and components exist wherein the production of soft X-radiation at levels as low as 15 kv, through the nintermediate" range and on up to "hard" X-radiation at 300 kv, is possible.

The Traveling-Wave Tube

The traveling-wave tube consists of three basic sections, the electron gun, the slow-wave structure, and the beam collector. The electron gun consists of a heater, a cathode, one or more control elements-called grids, and an anode or accelerating electrode. The electrons emitted from the cathode are made to converge through the center hole of the anode into the region where interaction with the radio frequency wave occurs. 

The beam is confined to flow longitudinally by an external solenoid or periodically spaced magnets. The low level RF is applied to the satow-wave structure by means of a connector near the cathode end of the tube. The effect of the interaction is to bunch the beam by retarding some electrons and accelerating others, depending on the relative phase of the RF electric field and the position of the particles. In order for gain to occur, there must result a net deceleration of the beam; that is, part of the kinetic energy of the electrons is extracted as an increase in amplitude of the radio wave. 

The spent electrons are then intercepted by the beam collector to complete the circuit. Even in well designed tubes, some of the electrons fail to reach the collector. Those that strike the anode give rise to X-rays at the forward end of the tube. The fraction that is intercepted by the tube body also produces radiation, but this is generally absorbed in the structure itself. 

Sixty to ninety per cent of the beam terminates at the collector, and it is in this region that most intense radiation can occur. Lead shielding is often required in this area when the beam potential exceeds 50 kv. Studies of traveling-wave tubes operating at 30 kv showed that Xradiation was emitted in a narrow band radially from the anode at a radiation level of I to 10 mr per hour, and that with proper precautions trayeling-wave tubes need not pose a serious hazard to personnel. Shielding with leaded glass or sheet metal generally provides sufficient protection.


Essentially, the klystron possesses the same basic physical conditions existing in an ordinary X-ray tube; namely, a beam of electrons traveling at high speed toward an anode, or target (in this case the collector), which is at a very high voltage and the stopping of these rapidly moving electrons. One of the most serious mistakes, and the most common one, made by personnel operating or servicing microwave equipment is to assume that a klystron is not generating X-radiation if RF is not applied to the tube. 

The klystron will generate approximately the same X-radiation intensity without RF applied as it will with the RF drive in operation, although there is some evidence that the RF voltage added to the DC beam voltage will intensify the X-radiation, and that the RF beam spreads the beam of electrons as it travels down the body of the tube, so giving rise to many X-radiation beams as they strike random targets. 


The determination of safe radiation protection (shielding) for a klystron can only be accomplished by actual experimentation. Conventional tables cannot be used because they predict X-ray intensity on the basis of monochromatic radiation. The klystron produces a continuous X-ray spectrum, and most of the radiation is less penetrating than those that correspond to the limiting 400 kv energy. 

An oscillating klystron also has groups of electrons accelerated to voltages approximately twice the beam voltage producing X-radiation of greater intensity and greater penetrating power. In addition, the velocity and space distribution of electrons in an oscillating klystron cannot be predicted with any degree of accuracy in the region beyond the third cavity. In a tunable klystron, X-radiation output may be increased or decreased by going through the frequency range. The physical location of the X-radiation can be changed by beam focusing and peaking* with variable parameters.


The accurate detection and recording of ionizing radiation in an admixture with radio frequency energies involves problems of dosimetry a •generally not encountered prior to the advent of high powered radio frequency generators. 

Tests performed in which commercial area and personnel dosimeters were subjected to an RF field demonstrated the marked influence this energy has on the ionization recorded. Relatively 71 low power, as little as I mw/cmz, caused the degradation or altering of the ionization measuring capabilities of many of the commonly employed types of personnel dosimeters and area survey meters. 

If the detector and circuits were shielded from the RF energy, the shielding attenuated the lower energy X-radiation before it reached the detector, thus making the detecting instrument almost insensitive to the lower energy X-rays. 

Gas filled X-ray detectors such as geiger tubes and ionization chambers are not reliable detectors of X-radiation from RF tubes because intense radiation generates enough ion pairs in the gas to seriously alter the electric field within the detectors, changing their sensitivity and possibly making them inoperative.

The film type dosimeter accurately records high levels of ionization even in very strong RF fields. Absolute dosage determinations over large ranges of radiation flux are possible with photographic emulsions. Large photographic films placed in the environment of high-power generators not only can indicate levels of radiation intensity but describe patterns as well. 

Photographic film for personnel monitoring ionizing radiation produced by RF tube however, is not satisfactory. Most X-ray emitting electronic tubes generally produce small, well collimated beams emitted through small faults or openings in the tube body or shielding, and the probability of a narrow, intense beam of X-radiation from an RF tube striking a personnel film badge is very remote.. 

An encouraging development in the search for an adequate radiation survey instrument is the Radiacmeter ME-118 developed by the Rome Air Development Center and scheduled to become a standard item in the U. S. Air Force Inventory. This meter is a scintillation type detector, and its theory of operation is as follows: X-radiation impinges on a cryst) (phosphor); the crystal fluoresces, producing light in the visible spectrum; this light emission is detected by a photo cell whose electrical output serves as an input to electronic circuitry, where the signal is amplified and then fed into a device for visual indication. 


Radio Frequency Radiation Hazard
The radar scanner emits electromagnetic radio frequency (RF) energy which can be harmful, particularly to your eyes. Never look directly into the scanner aperture from a close distance while the radar is in operation or expose yourself to the transmitting scanner at a close distance.

Marine Radar Radiation Marine radar systems operate in the high radio frequency (RF) and microwave range


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