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Sunday, June 30, 2019
Who Discovered Cosmic Rays? Cosmic Rays Here On Earth Or In Space - Five Interesting Facts About Cosmic Rays - Discovery That Neutrino Radiation Has Mass - Using Solar Sail To Power Spacecraft - Ultra-High-Energy Cosmic Rays (UHECRs) Health Effects - Bubble Chamber Detector

HISTORY LESSON; WHO DISCOVERED COSMIC RAYS? 

Austrian scientist Victor Hess first cottoned on to the existence of cosmic rays after a high-altitude balloon flight on Aug. 7, 1912. In the 100 years since, researchers have learned a lot about these highly energetic particles, which constantly bombard Earth from outer space. But important questions remain, including where exactly they come from.

In November 11,1925 Robert A. Millikan announces discovery of cosmic rays.

TESLA USED THEM TO PRODUCE SUFFICIENT ENERGY TO PRODUCE MOVEMENT IN A DEVICE


Pictures of Infinity COSMIC RAYS - NASA recently announced an upcoming research project to study the electrified gas, or plasma, that fills 99% of the universe. Nikola Tesla discovered the electrified particles in 1897; he called them ‘cosmic rays’.

Tesla said: "I have harnessed the cosmic rays and caused them to operate a motive device. Cosmic ray investigation is a subject very close to me. I was first to discover these rays and I naturally feel toward them as I would toward my own flesh and blood. I have advanced a theory of the cosmic rays and at every step of my investigations I have found it completely justified. The attractive features of the cosmic rays is their constancy. They shower down on us the whole 24 hours - they do not require devices for storing energy as would devices using wind, tide or sunlight." Brooklyn Eagle July 10, 1932

Via - န႔စဥ္သတင္းႏွင့္သုတရသအျဖာျဖာ

COSMIC RAYS ARE VISIBLE TO THE NAKED EYE FROM OUTER SPACE, AS THEY INTERACT WITH THE ATMOSPHERE OF THE EARTH



Earth Science Picture of the Day Today's Earth Science Picture of the Day
Moon Imaged from the MoCRiS Payload
Image Creators: Antonino Brosio and the MoCRiS Team 
Summary Author: Antonino Brosio 
Shown above is the waxing crescent Moon above the Italian regions of Calabria, Puglia and Basilicata. The photo was taken from a height of 20 miles (32 km) from the Measurement of Cosmic Rays in Stratosphere (MoCRiS) Balloon. This is a project in collaboration between OCRA (Outreach Cosmic Ray Activities) of National Institute for Nuclear Physics (INFN) and Liceo Scientifico Cariati.

The MoCRiS payload, consisting of two special detectors, will facilitate research on variations of the flow of cosmic rays in the Earth’s atmosphere, portrayed on this image as the blue/violet veneer atop the Earth. Launch was on June 8 (2019), from near Sila Mountain in Calabria, Italy.
Sila Mountain, Italy Coordinates: 39.366667, 16.5

COSMIC RAYS HAVE MASS AND ENERGY, WHICH CAN BE HARNESSED JUST AS PHOTOVOLTAIC CELLS CONVERT ENERGY OF PHOTONS INTO ELECTRICITY


Neutrino energy: harnessing the power of cosmic radiation
Ground was broken in the field of neutrino power in 2015 when two independent scientists, Takaaki Kajita in Japan and Canadian Arthur McDonald, proved that neutrinos – tiny rays of cosmic particles that permeate almost everything in the universe – did in fact have mass. And, as Einstein’s Relativity Theory goes, e=mc2, or everything with mass also contains energy. For their discovery, the two scientists were each bestowed the prestigious Nobel Prize in Physics.

The next step, and one that Neutrino Energy has embarked on, was to develop what was previously thought to be impossible – harnessing that energy for power generation.

In principle, harvesting neutrinos as an energy source is similar to that of a traditional photovoltaic (PV) solar cell. Neutrinos are not captured; instead a portion of their kinetic energy is taken and converted into electricity.

Go deeper

Fukushima Fast Neutron/Neutrino AntiNeutron Emissions, Gamma Rays Emitted From Nuclear Power Plant, Mines, Recycling Facilities, Anti Life Force Neutron Radiation Effect On Human Health And Climate

Nuclear Plants Show Up Like Cancers On Planet Earth In Neutron Map Showing Anti Neutrino Emissions

13 Neutron Beams Came Out Of Fukushima; Direct Evidence Of Holes In Reactors And Multiple Melt Throughs And Melt Outs, Resulting In Multiple China Syndromes; Fukushima Is Much Worse Than Anyone Can Imagine

SOLAR SAILS CAN BE USED TO POWER SPACE CRAFT, USING THE ENERGY OF COSMIC RAYS HITTING IT, JUST LIKE WIND HITTING THE SAIL OF A SAILBOAT CREATES ENERGY ENOUGH FOR CAUSING MOVEMENT OF BOAT


Solar sail uses solar radiation pressure to propel. It consists of ultra-thin mirror of different shape. Reflection of solar radiation creates a pressure on the sail. Similarly, some part of the radiation is absorbed. The absorbed energy heats the sail and is re-radiated. This also provides the resultant momentum to propel. The most common material used to make solar sail is aluminized 2 µm Kapton film. It withstands the heat of close Sun without any damage to its structure. The aluminum reflecting film points towards the Sun side.

COSMIC RAYS HAVE SUFFICIENT ENERGY TO DAMAGE ELECTRONICS AND HUMAN BODIES


Wikipedia; "Cosmic rays attract great interest practically, due to the damage they inflict on microelectronics and life outside the protection of an atmosphere and magnetic field, and scientifically, because the energies of the most energetic ultra-high-energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) have been observed to approach 3 × 1020 eV,[11] about 40 million times the energy of particles accelerated by the Large Hadron Collider.[12] One can show that such enormous energies might be achieved by means of the centrifugal mechanism of acceleration in active galactic nuclei. At 50 J,[13] the highest-energy ultra-high-energy cosmic rays (such as the Oh-My-God particle recorded in 1991) have energies comparable to the kinetic energy of a 90-kilometre-per-hour (56 mph) baseball. As a result of these discoveries, there has been interest in investigating cosmic rays of even greater energies.[14] Most cosmic rays, however, do not have such extreme energies; the energy distribution of cosmic rays peaks on 0.3 gigaelectronvolts (4.8×10−11 J).[15]

A historic method of secondary particle detection still used for demonstration purposes involves the use of cloud chambers[72] to detect the secondary muons created when a pion decays. Cloud chambers in particular can be built from widely available materials and can be constructed even in a high-school laboratory. A fifth method, involving bubble chambers, can be used to detect cosmic ray particles.[73]

Galactic cosmic rays are one of the most important barriers standing in the way of plans for interplanetary travel by crewed spacecraft. Cosmic rays also pose a threat to electronics placed aboard outgoing probes. In 2010, a malfunction aboard the Voyager 2 space probe was credited to a single flipped bit, probably caused by a cosmic ray. Strategies such as physical or magnetic shielding for spacecraft have been considered in order to minimize the damage to electronics and human beings caused by cosmic rays.[94][95]
Comparison of radiation doses, including the amount detected on the trip from Earth to Mars by the RAD on the MSL (2011 – 2013).[23][24][25]

Flying 12 kilometres (39,000 ft) high, passengers and crews of jet airliners are exposed to at least 10 times the cosmic ray dose that people at sea level receive. Aircraft flying polar routes near the geomagnetic poles are at particular risk.[96][97][98]

How are cosmic rays and the radiation they produce measured? 

Go deeper

What Is A Gamma-Ray Spectrometer? Using Gamma Spectroscopy To Observe And Collect Data, It Is Used To ID Individual Radioactive Elements And To Identify Which Man Made Radioactive Elements Are Present In A Given Sample

WHAT MAY BE THE HEALTH CONSEQUENCES OF COSMIC RAYS HITTING THE BODY?


Memetic Mnemonic The effects of cosmic rays on the human body


MYSTERY RADIATION ‘CLOUDS’ MAY POSE RISK TO AIR TRAVELLERS
Danger zones in the air where radiation levels surge could pose an unrecognised health hazard. Airliners may have to avoid these in future, just as they do with volcanic ash clouds, to minimise any risk to travellers and crew.

We have long known that high-altitude flight exposes us to cosmic rays. The radiation dose on a flight from London to Tokyo is roughly equivalent to a chest X-ray.

Now research flights have revealed the existence of “clouds” where radiation levels can be at least double the usual level. They were discovered as a result of the NASA-funded Automated Radiation Measurements for Aerospace Safety (ARMAS) programme, which aims to develop new methods of measuring and monitoring high-altitude radiation.

In 265 flights, radiation levels detected generally followed the expected pattern, but in at least six instances they surged, as though the aircraft was flying through a radiation cloud.

“We have seen several cases where the exposure is doubled while flying through the cloud,” says ARMAS principal investigator W. Kent Tobiska, of Los Angeles firm Space Environment Technologies. “It is quite variable and can easily be more or less than that.”

Go deeper

Space Radiation; Health Threats Posed To Astronauts And ISS By Cosmic Rays And Solar Energetic Particles, Radiation Shielding Methods - Exposure Technically Limited to 100 Millisieverts a Year

SkyShine, Brehmsstrahlung, Gamma Haze From Gamma Radiation; Example Of It At Fukushima Daichi
https://www.agreenroadjournal.com/2014/12/skyshine-brehmsstrahlung-gamma-haze.html

Alpha Particles, Beta Particles and Gamma Radiation Explained; What Is Ionizing Radiation?

What Is A Gamma Ray? What Produces Gamma Rays? Sun Creates Solar Flares, Which Produce Gamma Rays - NASA Reports Gamma Rays And Anti Matter Is Produced Here On Earth Via Thunderstorms And Lightning, Gamma Shine From Nuclear Reactors

Arto Lauri; How Nuclear Reactors Act Like Anti Life Force Tesla Death Ray Ion Guns, Shooting Ionizing Gases, Plasma Balls, 'Death' Rays Into Upper Atmosphere, Destroying Ion Balance, Emit Heavy Metal Radioactive Poisons

Photons In Light, Photons In Nuclear Reactors And Photons In Nuclear Medicine; What Is The Difference? Atoms For Peace Program Consists Of Selling Radioactive Poisons That Harm And Kill All Living Things On The Planet

Internal Ionizing Radiation Danger Explained; Most People Have No Clue Because In Most Mass Media, Schools And Colleges This Subject Is (Taboo); They Don't Teach Anything Except Pro Nuclear PR Spin, Correlations Is Not Causation Debunked
https://www.agreenroadjournal.com/2016/05/internal-radiation-danger-explained.html

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Who Discovered Cosmic Rays? Cosmic Rays Here On Earth Or In Space - Five Interesting Facts About Cosmic Rays - Discovery That Neutrino Radiation Has Mass - Using Solar Sail To Power Spacecraft - Ultra-High-Energy Cosmic Rays (UHECRs) Health Effects - Bubble Chamber Detector
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