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Quakers Use Queries For Reflection And As A Spiritual Exercise Or Strategy For Going Deeper, Increasing Awareness, Consciousness, Empathy, And Compassion - Quaker Figures In History Who Used Quaker Query - Critical Thinking, Or Socratic Questioning - Socrates Taught Interrogative Soul Method



WHEN IN DOUBT, QUESTION EVERYTHING




Keep on questioning or 'queries'. Never stop the questions, or the doubts, because the questions and doubts lead somewhere.. 



Pg 53: "For guidance in word and deed, we look first to the Spirit as revealed in ourselves and in others. We recognize as did George Fox that education in itself does not necessarily lead to a deeper spiritual sensitivity and that there are many who lack extensive formal education yet who bring pure water from the spiritual springs of life. But we also know from experience that the perspective provided by sound education, which includes the development of skills in listening and communicating, helps us to identify what is faithful to the Light in our own leadings, to interpret and communicate those leadings, and to weigh the leadings of others. Philadelphia Yearly Meeting, 2007

QUAKERSPEAK DEFINES; WHAT IS A QUAKER QUERY?

A Quaker query leads to more truth and to a deeper experience. Seeking the truth via a query is something that Quakers do. 


Quakerspeak; What is a Quaker Query?

What is a Quaker Query?
YOUTUBE VIDEO: https://youtu.be/rrSGvNV4pX8 4 min

Wikipedia; "Quakers use the term Query to refer to a question or series of questions used for (self) reflection and in spiritual exercises.

Friends have used Queries as tools for offering spiritual challenges to the community for much of their history. Queries often take the form of a collection of themed questions that are read at the beginning of a time of worship or reflection.

Many yearly meetings maintain a set of basic queries in their books of Faith and Practice to provide guidance on certain issues over time. Individuals often offer queries from time to time to provide a spiritual challenge to their local community of Friends.

WHO ARE SOME NOTABLE QUAKERS AND WHAT LEGACY DID THEY LEAVE BEHIND?


Quaker Figures 

William Allen
Susan B. Anthony
Robert Barclay
Anthony Benezet
Kenneth E. Boulding
Howard Brinton
John Cadbury
Levi Coffin
Susanna Corder
Judi Dench
Joshua Evans
Margaret Fell
George Fox
Elizabeth Fry
Edward Hicks
Elias Hicks
Herbert Hoover
Rufus Jones
Thomas R. Kelly
Zephaniah Kingsley
Benjamin Lay
Dave Matthews
Lucretia Mott
James Nayler
Richard Nixon
Parker Palmer
Alice Paul
William Penn
Robert Pleasants
Bayard Rustin
Jessamyn West
John Greenleaf Whittier
Jon Wynne-Tyson
John Woolman

UNANSWERED QUESTIONS ARE VERY VALUABLE AND POWERFUL IN TERMS OF A QUAKER QUERY, ESPECIALLY INSIDE OF A CLEARNESS COMMITTEE

A Quaker Query process can be found in Clearness Committees, where a person asks other Friends to join him or her in reaching clarity. Those friends do not offer any answers. But they do assist or facilitate that person to become more clear about the question and to go deeper within.


A Clearness Committee is a very powerful process that leads a person into themselves, which eventually may offer an answer to the question posed, or not. 

Unanswered questions are perfectly fine, or as long as they remain unanswered, because there is a process involved in this, which eventually leads somewhere. 


A question or a query may remain unanswered for many years. It is very important among Quakers to follow an inner leading, which may consist of a feeling, a mental question, an action, something that needs to be written down, drawn, artistically rendered, or it may just be a sense of something that is missing. Follow that, whatever it is, and keep on going deeper.

A QUAKER QUERY IS INVOLVED IN DOING THE WORK OF RECONCILIATION BETWEEN INDIVIDUALS, GROUPS AND NATIONS

Quakers in Britain "Bring into God’s light those emotions, attitudes and prejudices in yourself which lie at the root of destructive conflict, acknowledging your need for forgiveness and grace. In what ways are you involved in the work of reconciliation between individuals, groups and nations?"

A QUAKER QUERY IS IN PART SEEKING THE LIGHT WITHIN BY EXAMINING OUR OWN ATTITUDES, PREJUDICES, BIAS 




@QuakerAandQ

This passage comes from the first chapter of Quaker faith And Practice. This chapter is called 'Advices and queries' and can be found at http://qfp.quaker.org.uk/

WHAT IS A QUAKER? THE HISTORICAL ROOTS AND EVOLUTION OF QUAKERS, INCLUDING UNPROGRAMMED QUAKERS

Quakers, also called Friends, are a historically Christian denomination whose formal name is the Religious Society of Friends or Friends Church.[2] Members of the various Quaker movements are all generally united by their belief in the ability of each human being to experientially access the light within, or "that of God in every one".[3]
Much more at; https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quakers

The 'tree' of Quakerism has many branches and twigs....




Theology

4.2Unprogrammed worship

The tree of Quaker evolution and growth is portrayed in simple form here..




Let's go deeper into the query; What Is Unprogrammed Quaker Worship, within Liberal Quakerism above?

Unprogrammed Quakers have no official paid minister. Every Quaker is a minister, and has a ministry. Meetings consist of Silent Worship, where individual ministers may speak out of the silence, or not, as led by an inner leading. 

A QUAKER QUERY FOLLOWS THE PROMPTINGS OF TRUTH, LIGHT AND LOVE THAT IS IN THE HEART

A query is not just a mental concept, but extends into invisible domains that only the heart or intuition can reach. 

Quaker Earthcare Witness Take heed, dear Friends, to the promptings of love and truth in your hearts. Trust them as the leadings of God whose Light shows us our darkness and brings us to new life.
— Britain Yearly Meeting, Advices and Queries



Quakers had their beginning under the leadership of George Fox, who lived in the UK. 

Quakers were killed, imprisoned, suppressed, attacked, deported and/or punished under a dictatorial king. 

UK; Basic queries can be found in the Quaker Book entitled; Faith and Practice
Chapter 1; Advices and Queries

HISTORICAL USE OF QUERY AMONG QUAKERS, WHICH PROMOTES HARMONY AND PEACE BOTH WITHIN AND WITHOUT


Pg 17; "Similarly, early Friends used queries to ascertain the state of the Society as a whole, both spiritually and practically. The first set of such questions to be asked of monthly meetings was: 

• Which Friends in service to the Society, in their respective regions, departed this life since the last Yearly Meeting? 
• Which Friends, imprisoned on account of their testimony, died in prison since the last Yearly Meeting? 
• How among Friends did Truth advance since last Yearly Meeting and how do they fare in relation to peace and unity? 

HOW QUAKERS USE QUERIES TODAY; SEEKING WAYS FOR GROWTH AND WISDOM


Pg 17-18 "Friends use queries today to challenge ourselves and to open the way for growth in wisdom. Examples of contemporary queries are: 

• How do we avoid being drawn into violent reactions against those who are destructive of human dignity? Do we reach out to violator as well as violated with courage and love? 

• In what ways do we honor all living things? Do we seek the holiness 18 Friends Experiential Faith inherent in the order of nature, the wildness of wilderness, and the richness of the world? 

Taken together, the advices and queries are a reminder of the common faith and principles held to be essential to the life and witness of the Religious Society of Friends. Individually and in meetings, Friends consider how the advices and queries affect us personally and communally
US NPYM 2017 Faith and Practice (303 pdfs)

QUERY PROCESS AND GROUP OR PERSONAL REFLECTION


Pg 26-27 "Advices and Queries. Advices gather the wisdom and experience of Friends; queries are used for personal or group reflection. Many meetings read and consider one or several queries, along with appropriate advices or other material, during meeting for worship, meeting for business, worship-sharing, or other gatherings. Some meetings record their responses to the queries. Meetings may also use the queries as a basis for their annual State of Society reports. Meeting committees may find certain queries helpful in evaluating their activities. Meetings often publish the queries regularly in their newsletters.

In worship we seek a union of the hearts of all present as we search for Truth. As individuals we may enter into worship with concerns about family Friends Spiritual Disciplines 27 and friends, members of our meeting community, and our local and world communities. We may also reflect on the ways we are in harmony with others and with Quaker testimonies. When we are open to the Spirit in ourselves and in others, we may become united in our concern for each other and for our community. As this sense of unity in the Spirit grows, the meeting is gathered – there is a sense of strength and power in the presence of the Light that transcends us as individuals. Worshipping together we strengthen one another,......"
US NPYM 2017 Faith and Practice (303 pdfs)

QUERY PROCESS AND UNCOVERING WHAT IS HIDDEN BY ACTIVITY OR THOUGHT


Pg. 30 I come to be disarmed by truth, a process in which I am helped to discern what I have hidden from myself in overlays of activity. … I come to the ministry of silence and caring to experience whatever needs to happen not only for me but for each person heart-led there. I come not knowing what will be asked of me or given, trusting that process and that Power which directs. Shirley Ruth Parks Tweed, 1982

QUERY PROCESS AND PONDERING MEANING OF A MESSAGE


Pg 30; "After a message is given, Friends take time to ponder its meaning and to give space before rising to speak if we are so led.

QUERY PROCESS IS GUIDED BY INWARD LIGHT; THEN SPEAKING ONLY WHAT IS NEEDED, AND NO MORE, BEING SENSITIVE TO OTHERS NEEDS AND NOT BEYOND OUR OWN 'CALL' TO MINISTER


Pg 32; "As we listen, or as we speak, are we guided by the inward Light and sensitive to one another’s needs? Are we careful not to speak at undue length or beyond our call?

THE QUERY PROCESS IS DEEPENED VIA SILENT WORSHIP AT WEEKLY GATHERINGS, AND VIA OTHER OPPORTUNITIES FOR DEEPENING SPIRITUALLY


Pg 32-33; "Silent retreats are times set aside for the refreshment of the spirit. Some Friends set aside an occasional weekend for an individual retreat in silence and solitude, for example when carrying weighty responsibilities. They may spend the time in prayer and reflection, visiting a garden or nature preserve, or yielding to the call to rest in quiet. Regular times for silence and retreat seem essential for spiritual growth. Organized silent retreats call Friends together for a period of time. The retreat provides an occasion for silence, worship, and prayer away from the atmosphere in which committees and business are usually conducted. The Friends come with the expectation that in waiting together we may be gathered in worship in a way different from private meditation or a quiet weekend in the country. This more sustained period of retirement shared with other Friends can deepen our individual spiritual lives and the life we share together. 

Remember [that] it is a still voice that speaks to us in this day, and that it is not to be heard in the noises and hurries of the mind. 
William Penn, 1691 

We were taught by renewed experience to labor for an inward stillness, at no time to seek for words, but to live in the spirit of Truth, and utter that to the people which Truth opened in us. 
John Woolman, 1747

THE QUERY PROCESS LEADS US DEEPER INTO AWARENESS, TO THE INWARD SOURCE, TO MINDFULNESS


Pg 34-35 "Advices & Queries – Silence All of us need to find a way into silence which allows us to deepen our awareness of the Divine and to find the inward source of our strength. Amid the busyness of daily living, we seek to return to the stillness which grounds us. We value silence, not as an end but as a means toward the end, which is communication with the Divine and fellowship with one another. We must not remain silent when something is wrong, or when we are led to speak out. Seek to be formed by a practice of silence, as a foundation for a mindful life. 

• Do we set aside times of quiet for openness to the Spirit? 

• How do we bring stillness into our daily lives? 

• Do we seek to be formed by a living silence? How are our lives shaped by the practice of stillness? Friends Spiritual Disciplines 35 

• Do our hearts dwell in the silence beneath everyday busyness?


THE QUERY PROCESS WORKS THROUGH PRAYER, ASKING FOR SUPPORT, HOLDING OTHERS IN THE LIGHT, MEDIATING, OPENING TO LOVE, AND READING SPIRITUAL WISDOM


Pg 35; "Prayer can take many forms, such as thanksgiving, praise, self reflection, and asking God’s support for others, which many contemporary Friends call “holding in the Light.”

If we ask for specific outcomes, the Divine Power may not answer as we wish. An alternative is to take the issue or the person(s) in our minds and hearts to the Light and leave them there. 

Some practices that Friends have found effective are: 

• Sinking into the Spirit and opening ourselves to the motion of Love; 
• Reading and deep reflection upon diverse sources of spiritual wisdom; 
• Harmonious meditation in response to the wonders of the natural world; 
• Offering gratitude; 
• Seeking spiritual and practical guidance; 
• Recounting the day’s events along with the feelings, inklings, and openings contained within them.


THE QUERY PROCESS RELIES ON INWARD RETIREMENT AND WAITING, FOR A SENSE OF INNER PEACE, AND/OR SPIRITUAL REFRESHMENT


Pg 37; "I read that I was supposed to make ‘a place for inward retirement and waiting upon God’ in my daily life, as the Queries in those days expressed it…. At last I began to realise, first that I needed some kind of inner peace or inward retirement, or whatever name it might be called by; and then that these apparently stuffy old Friends were really talking sense. If I studied what they were trying to tell me, I might possibly find that the ‘place of inward retirement’ was not a place I had to go to, it was there all the time. I could know the ‘place of inward retirement’ wherever I was, or whatever I was doing, and find the spiritual refreshment for which, knowingly or unknowingly, I was longing, and hear the voice of God in my heart. Thus I began to realise that prayer was not a formality, or an obligation, it was a place which was there all the time and always available. Elfrida Vipont Foulds, 1983

THE QUERY PROCESS WORKS IN MANY MYSTERIOUS, WONDROUS, DIVERSE PATHS AND WAYS


Pg 37; "There is a healing that comes through prayer in its various forms, through the laying on of hands, through music and dance, painting and colour, through communication with and understanding of the world of nature and through friendship. Jim Pym, 1990

THE QUERY PROCESS RELIES ON DIRECT EXPERIENCE, NOT BELIEF, DOGMA, PROBLEMS, DISBELIEF, PIETY, GETTING HUNG UP, IDEOLOGY, ETC...


Pg 38; "We can bring ourselves again and again to the Light that reveals, confronts, and heals all that obscures the truth within us, and we can do this with a steady commitment that refuses to allow prayer to become merely a comforting retreat. The key is honesty, not piety, and a willingness not to get hung up on problems of belief. I asked the class to suspend disbelief, to take the love of God as a working hypothesis, and then to submit to prayer’s alchemy. Given that so much of what passes for prayer is merely the rehearsal of an ideology, it is not surprising that so many intelligent people reject it. But Quakerism insists that belief finds its ground and substance in direct experience. To come to that experience one must bring one’s whole being, mind, heart, and body to an attitude of anticipation, intense listening, fierce engagement, and an insistent desire to be re-formed in the Creative Presence. Daniel Snyder, 2008


THE QUERY PROCESS IS INTIMATELY LINKED TOGETHER WITH DISCERNMENT


Pg 39: "Discernment A community that emphasizes the present availability of divine guidance must take discernment seriously. Discernment is sorting, careful listening and recognizing. Discernment offers tools to distinguish between an interior leading from God and an impulse whose origin is less worthy.… Michael Birkel, 2004 

Friends make decisions in the faith that there is one divine Spirit which is accessible to everyone and that when we follow the Light of Truth within, we find unity and right action. When we are faithful in discernment we become more patient, listen more carefully, feel stronger bonds of community, and are more sensitive to divine nudges. 

We find ourselves transformed and aligned with the Spirit. 

Quaker discernment is a spiritual discipline that we practice in meeting for business, in committee work, in specially-constituted clearness and support committees, and in personal choices made every day

THE QUERY PROCESS WORKS THROUGH MEETINGS FOR WORSHIP FOR BUSINESS, SEEKING TO MOVE BEYOND GUIDANCE, UNITY, CONSENSUS AND LEADINGS OF THE SPIRIT, INTO A SENSE OF THE MEETING OR DIVINE WILL


Pg 39-40; "Meeting for Business and Other Community Decision Making. 

Conducting business on the basis of discernment is central to the existence of a Friends meeting. Friends therefore sometimes speak of “meeting for worship for business” instead of “meeting for business.” The Quaker way of living and working together can create and preserve a sense of fellowship in the meeting. It is the way the community comes together to do its right work under the guidance of the Light. 

Whether in smaller groups or in the full meeting for business, discernment works best when Friends are fully attending to the 40 Friends Spiritual Disciplines Presence. The commitment to searching for unity depends upon mutual trust, implies a willingness to labor and to submit to the leadings of the Spirit, and increases as members grow in Love. 

Quakers with a decision to make will not take a vote but will enter into worshipful discussion. All voices are heard and valued as the group seeks to recognize and follow God’s direction. Observers may describe Quaker decision making as working by consensus instead of majority rule. 

Consensus, a concept from the secular world, is a good way to find a decision that is generally acceptable to most people involved, but it is not what Quaker meetings for business are really reaching for. 

The question is not “What do we want to do?” but rather “What do Truth and Love require of us?” When gathered for discernment, the meeting strives to understand the divine will for this group of Friends at this time, as manifested by the sense of the meeting. 

Friends know the sense of the meeting by the collective internal harmony it brings, and acknowledge it in grateful worship. Sometimes discernment includes not making a decision because the group cannot find unity. Teaching the discipline of discernment to children and newcomers in the meeting can be particularly challenging and rewarding.

Pg 43; "Through the practice of unity, Friends seek a mystical experience in the last place most people would look for one – a business meeting. Mary Klein, 2008 

Perhaps the most outstanding aspect of Meeting for Business is its atmosphere, which one word describes, respect. Quakers respect one another. They are also open to each other and are unusually humble. Being non-violent they do not shout each other down or indulge in sarcastic remarks. In part, their respect for each other arises because of their common belief that everyone has the Light within. In part it comes because Quakers are wary of claiming truth for themselves, although they are willing to acknowledge their small piece of it. Moreover, they enter Meeting for Business with the belief that all are seeking the best solution to whatever problems confront them and that the group can arrive at a best solution through worshiping and working together. Patricia Williams, 2008

Pg 44-45; "Contributing to the meeting’s discernment is a responsibility of membership. This includes attending meetings for business and being faithful in the service of the meeting’s affairs.

 • Do we patiently seek divine guidance to discern the right course of action?
• How do we test our leadings? Do we patiently and prayerfully seek clearness in the Light? Do we offer spiritual aid for others who are seeking clearness? 
• When our own way is unclear, do we seek the counsel of others in our meeting? • What can we do to help others recognize, temper, and strengthen their leadings? 
• Do we hold our meetings for business in the spirit of worship, love, and understanding? How are we seeking God’s Truth together in community? 
• Do we regularly take part in meetings for business? Do we uphold the meeting in prayer when we cannot be present? Friends Spiritual Disciplines 45 
• Do we come into meeting for business prepared to be changed? Are we ready to let go of our individual thoughts and wishes and let the Holy Spirit lead the meeting to unity? 
• As difficult problems arise, are we careful to meet them in a spirit of love and humility, with minds open for creative solutions? How do we avoid taking sides and forming factions? 
• Do we avoid the pressure of time, neither unnecessarily prolonging nor unduly curtailing full consideration? 
• Are we aware that we speak through inaction as well as action?

THE QUERY PROCESS WORKS THROUGH COMMITTEE WORK, AND SELFLESS SERVICE TO THE MEETING


Pg 40; "Other Occasions for Community Discernment. Regular committee work and other service to the meeting offer many opportunities to practice discernment and decision making, as do support groups and study groups. As in a meeting for business, all such occasions begin and end in silent worship.


THE QUERY PROCESS WORKS THROUGH CLEARNESS COMMITTEES AND SEEKING CLARITY, OR CLEARNESS, FOLLOWING INNER GUIDE


Pg 40; "Clearness Committees. From early times, Friends have appointed small groups to work with potential new members or with couples requesting marriage under the care of the meeting to test whether the way is “clear” – meaning that there are no impediments or unresolved issues – before the matter comes before the meeting for business. Gradually these clearness committees came to operate as pastoral counseling before approval of marriage or membership. (See Chapters 9 and 10, “Membership” and “Marriage and Committed Relationships.”) 

This existing structure has expanded and Friends now use clearness committees for other purposes, for example in making a life-changing decision Friends Spiritual Disciplines 41 or in testing a leading. 

Seeking clearness in this way is a spiritual discipline both for the Friend making the decision or testing the leading and for those serving on the committee. Committee members listen deeply and ask open-ended questions to help the seeker focus and turn to the Inner Guide for direction, without offering their own advice or solutions.

THE QUERY PROCESS RELIES ON INDIVIDUAL PROCESS OF EXPERIENCE AND DISCERNMENT


Pg. 41; "Other Individual Discernment. 

Spirit-led discernment is an ongoing discipline which Friends practice individually in many aspects of our lives, whether in service to the meeting or in our homes, workplaces, and communities. Quiet, centered discernment helps us to distinguish the right course among the many distractions, temptations, mixed messages, and conflicting choices of daily life. 

See also “Friends Method of Reaching Decisions” and “Clearness and Other Care Committees” in Chapter 5, “The Monthly Meeting.” 

Quotations 

If you indeed cry out for insight, and raise your voice for understanding; If you seek it like silver, and search for it as for hidden treasures – Then you will understand the fear of the Lord and find the knowledge of God. For the Lord gives wisdom; from his mouth come knowledge and understanding. … Then you will understand righteousness and justice and equity, every good path; For wisdom will come into your heart, and knowledge will be pleasant to your soul; Prudence will watch over you, and understanding will guard you. Proverbs 2:3-6; 9-11

THE QUERY PROCESS RELIES LEADING OF THE SPIRIT WITHIN VIA DEEP LISTENING

Pg 42-43; "I can count on one hand the number of times in my life when I have experienced what I would consider to be a true leading of the Spirit. In each case, the leadings have been characterized by a compulsion to act, fears that I would not be able to live up to what was being required of me, and a deeper sense that I wasn’t being asked to do this entirely on my own strength. In any case, I knew that a decision not to act upon my conscience would be like a small death, a failure to allow myself to grow and discover in myself new strengths and courage. Ruth Walmsley, 1997

In a “listening spirituality”… our individual and corporate ability to discern, distinguish, or sift Divine Guidance from other promptings is critical. Rather than drawing a dualistic, yes/no distinction between good and evil, Quaker spirituality demands of us a commitment to a much more subtle and strenuous effort to discriminate movements of the Spirit among the complex motivations, forces and dimensions of experience within and around us. Patricia Loring, 1999

THE QUERY PROCESS INVOLVES SEEKING TRUTH BUT NOT OUTRUNNING THE GUIDE


Pg 43; "Seeking and waiting for Truth’s leadings is a discipline through which all can grow in patience, unity, and love. Decisions under the guidance of the Spirit knit the loving community together. We remain patient and wait upon God as long as needed for a decision to emerge which clearly recommends itself as the right one. We guard against contentiousness, obstinacy, and love of control and power. We remember that our views, however fondly cherished, may be wrong. We season our decisions and test our leadings with patience and integrity. We take care to stay within our leadings, lest we outrun our Guide.

THE QUERY PROCESS RELIES ON MINISTRY, AND EACH ATTENDER OR MEMBER IS A MINISTER, EQUAL TO ALL OTHERS, VIA CARING, SUPPORT, COUNSEL, SPOKEN AND UNSPOKEN MINISTRY

There is no official minister among Quakers who practice Silent Worship. Every person in the meeting is a minister, with a calling, or a ministry, via the testimony of equality. 

What are you being called to do, say, be or express? 

Pg 45-47 "There are also ministries of caring, support, and counsel that quietly and persistently work among us. These seek to meet the physical, social, and spiritual needs we all have and lead to deepening our mutual life in the Spirit. 

Inviting someone to lunch after meeting, making a friendly phone call, regularly visiting a 46 Friends Spiritual Disciplines Friend descending into dementia, opening our home to someone recovering from surgery, arriving before meeting for worship to open the meeting house and turn on the heat in preparation for worship: all are occasions of ministry. 

We may be called by love to any number of duties. When a duty is performed through love, it is a ministry. There is also ministry through the books, pamphlets, and periodicals that Friends publish; these publications can travel to places few might be able to visit. 

More than one person has come into our Society through the printed word. 

Likewise the websites and blogs we create, however singular they appear, are forms of ministry to the world and to each other. 

Lastly, there is a continuing ministry in our deportment in daily life, how we live out our testimonies in the world. Each one of us is a witness to Truth, found in Love, which is the fundamental ministry

Again and again we [are] given the message that things will go wrong, someone will be an obstacle, others won’t do as we hoped, we will at times fail. Yet in living our ministry, whatever it might be, we are given strength and we are asked to persist and find a way. If the support we need is not obvious, we might have to help others find the gift of nurture. If someone objects to our actions, we might need to listen them into a place where both might hear a way forward. Our own pains and trauma are part of who we are. In the Light we may learn ways that these pains might be an aid rather than an obstacle to our work and our relationships. Generosity and patience are essential. Margery Post Abbott, 2009 

For Quakers, “ministry” is almost synonymous with “service,” but with the added sense that ministry is service that is done under God’s guidance. Mathilda Navias, 2012

THE QUERY PROCESS IS IN PART EXPLORING AND DISCOVERING THE GIFTS WE HAVE TO OFFER, AND THEN DISCERNING HOW THOSE GIFTS CAN BE USED IN SELFLESS SERVICE


Pg 47; "Advices And Queries – 

Ministry Friends seek to discover the gifts and discern the service to which we are called. 

In making life choices, we consider ways that offer the fullest opportunity to develop our individual abilities and contribute to the wider community while providing for ourselves and our families. 

In daily work, we seek to manifest a spirit of justice and understanding, thus giving a living witness to the Truth. 

Friends recognize that we are given gifts for the use of the meeting and the world. 

The meeting seeks to recognize and nurture the use of those gifts. 

Remember that our simple presence can be a ministry – at a bedside or at a protest. 

• Are we careful to wait for and move under the leading of the Spirit in the exercise of our gifts? 
• How do we minister to each other, offering and receiving advice and support in a spirit of love and humility? 
• Do we hold with tenderness each of the varieties of ministry exercised among us?

THE QUERY PROCESS INCLUDES AND EMBRACES ALL GIFTS, AND THE GREAT DIVERSITY OF ETHNICITIES, SOCIAL CLASSES, BACKGROUNDS, POLITICAL BELIEFS, THEOLOGIES, SEXUAL ORIENTATION, AND MORE


Pg 48-49; "Our Religious Society of Friends is enriched when all members and attenders take part to the greatest measure of their gifts. The working of the Spirit in our lives as Friends in community can be seen in many ways: through prophetic ministry, witness in the world, loving care for each other, conscientious attention to committee work, and the examples provided by lives lived in the Light. 

Quaker organizations and service groups offer opportunities for participation in the Religious Society of Friends as a whole. The life of the meeting depends upon the varied gifts and leadings of all members and attenders. 

Awareness of the Presence in our lives connects us to each other, and over time we are known by the people with whom we gather. As we worship, work, and socialize together, we form friendships that strengthen our communities locally and in the wider Quaker world. 

A meeting grows as it includes new Friends and attenders of many ethnicities, social classes, backgrounds, political beliefs, and theologies. We offer informal advice and counsel to one another, thus gaining skills and experience that enrich our lives outside the Religious Society of Friends. 

In addition, the health of the meeting depends upon practical contributions from everyone. Within meetings, the Nominating and Finance Committees point out needs and suggest ways for individuals to participate and contribute. 

Individual Friends discern what financial contributions we can make and what other support we are led to offer. Financial support is a vital component in the life of the monthly, quarterly, and yearly meetings. 

For as in one body we have many members, and not all members have the same function, so we, who are many, are one body in Christ, and individually we are Friends Spiritual Disciplines 49 members one of another. We have gifts that differ according to the grace given to us: prophecy, in proportion to faith; ministry, in ministering; the teacher, in teaching; the exhorter, in exhortation; the giver, in generosity; the leader, in diligence; the compassionate, in cheerfulness. Romans 12:4-8 

Now there are varieties of gifts, but the same Spirit; and there are varieties of service, but the same Lord; and there are varieties of working, but it is the same God who inspires them all in every one. To each is given the manifestation of the Spirit for the common good. To one is given through the Spirit the utterance of wisdom, and to another the utterance of knowledge according to the same Spirit, to another faith by the same Spirit, to another gifts of healing by the one Spirit, to another the working of miracles, to another prophecy, to another the discernment of spirits, to another various kinds of tongues, to another the interpretation of tongues. 1 Corinthians 12:4-10 

Not by strength of arguments or by a particular disquisition of each doctrine and convincement of my understanding thereby, came I to receive and bear witness of the Truth, but by being secretly reached by the Life. For when I came into the silent assemblies of God’s people, I felt a secret power among them which touched my heart; and as I gave way unto it I found the evil weakening in me and the good raised up and so I became thus knit and united unto them, hungering more and more after the increase of this power and life, whereby I might feel myself perfectly redeemed. Robert Barclay, 1676

The way to call anyone into fellowship with us is not to offer them service, which is likely to arouse the resistance of their pride, but to ask service of them. Simeon Shitemi, 1991 

When I was sixteen and first came to Quakers, I felt so much that I kept coming back. And I began to understand that Quakerism is cumulative. The more you enter into the silence and the stillness, the more that you ask to be washed in the Light, the more that you participate, the more you begin to understand that there is ground opening up beneath you that is larger and deeper than you first imagined. John Calvi, 2009

THE QUERY PROCESS IS RELATED TO TESTIMONIES, ACTING FAITHFULLY,  EXPLORING THE FRUITS OF THE SPIRIT AND EDUCATION


Pg 51; "The primary way of imparting our Quaker testimonies – the fruits of the Spirit – is by living and acting faithfully in our homes, meetings, and communities. Friends have long recognized that education, particularly education that promotes spiritual growth, enhances the inward transforming experience. This brings us into closer harmony with the Spirit and enables us to live faithfully as Quakers. Friends hold that everyone has access to the Inner Light, and that all can benefit from education. At the same time we recognize that education itself does not necessarily lead to a deeper spiritual sensitivity


QUAKER QUERY IS CONNECTED TO QUAKER VALUES AND TESTIMONIES

What are Quaker values and testimonies?

The Light upon the Candlestick – a 17th-century tract which was popular among English Quakers

Testimony of simplicity
Testimony of integrity
Testimony of equality
Peace Testimony

Meeting for Sufferings

Quaker queries are built on top of critical thinking and have expanded beyond that in a number of ways. 

Quaker queries extend into and are part of Silent Worship, where a query can be focused on and followed via contemplation or reflection, to where ever it leads.

Quaker queries extend into Meeting For Business And Worship, where queries are an important part of the process, combined with a sense of unity, following leadings, and a sense of the meeting.

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Quakers Definition Of Integrity; What Does It Mean? TedX And Definition Of Integrity In Business, Voting, Elections, Politics, Keeping Promises - One Of Six Universal Human Values (Simplicity, Peace, Integrity, Community, Equality, Service = S.P.I.C.E.S.) That All Religions And Belief Systems Teach Plus Follow


THE HISTORY OF CRITICAL THINKING

Critical thinking

Sculpture of Socrates

Wikipedia; "Critical thinking is the analysis of facts to form a judgment.[1] The subject is complex, and several different definitions exist, which generally include the rational, skeptical, unbiased analysis, or evaluation of factual evidence. Critical thinking is self-directed, self-disciplined, self-monitored, and self-corrective thinking.[2] It presupposes assent to rigorous standards of excellence and mindful command of their use. It entails effective communication and problem-solving abilities as well as a commitment to overcome native egocentrism[3][4] and sociocentrism.

History

The earliest records of critical thinking are the teachings of Socrates recorded by Plato. These included a part in Plato's early dialogues, where Socrates engages with one or more interlocutors on the issue of ethics such as question whether it was right for Socrates to escape from prison.[5] The philosopher considered and reflected on this question and came to the conclusion that escape violates all the things that he holds higher than himself: the laws of Athens and the guiding voice that Socrates claims to hear.[5]

Socrates established the fact that one cannot depend upon those in "authority" to have sound knowledge and insight. He demonstrated that persons may have power and high position and yet be deeply confused and irrational. Socrates maintained that for an individual to have a good life or to have one that is worth living, he must be critical questioner or must have an interrogative soul.[6] He established the importance of asking deep questions that probe profoundly into thinking before we accept ideas as worthy of belief.

Socrates established the importance of "seeking evidence, closely examining reasoning and assumptions, analyzing basic concepts, and tracing out implications not only of what is said but of what is done as well."[7] 


SOCRATIC QUESTIONING AS METHOD FOR TEACHING CRITICAL THINKING


His method of questioning is now known as "Socratic questioning" and is the best known critical thinking teaching strategy. In his mode of questioning, Socrates highlighted the need for thinking for clarity and logical consistency. He asked people questions to reveal their irrational thinking or lack of reliable knowledge. 

Socrates demonstrated that having authority does not ensure accurate knowledge. He established the method of questioning beliefs, closely inspecting assumptions and relying on evidence and sound rationale. Plato recorded Socrates' teachings and carried on the tradition of critical thinking. Aristotle and subsequent Greek skeptics refined Socrates' teachings, using systematic thinking and asking questions to ascertain the true nature of reality beyond the way things appear from a glance.[8]

Socrates set the agenda for the tradition of critical thinking, namely, to reflectively question common beliefs and explanations, carefully distinguishing beliefs that are reasonable and logical from those that—however appealing to our native egocentrism, however much they serve our vested interests, however comfortable or comforting they may be—lack adequate evidence or rational foundation to warrant belief.

Critical thinking was described by Richard W. Paul as a movement in two waves (1994).[9] The "first wave" of critical thinking is often referred to as a 'critical analysis' that is clear, rational thinking involving critique. Its details vary amongst those who define it. According to Barry K. Beyer (1995), critical thinking means making clear, reasoned judgments. 

During the process of critical thinking, ideas should be reasoned, well thought out, and judged.[10] The U.S. National Council for Excellence in Critical Thinking[11] defines critical thinking as the "intellectually disciplined process of actively and skillfully conceptualizing, applying, analyzing, synthesizing, or evaluating information gathered from, or generated by, observation, experience, reflection, reasoning, or communication, as a guide to belief and action."[12]

Etymology and origin of critical thinking

In the term critical thinking, the word critical, (Grk. κριτικός = kritikos = "critic") derives from the word critic and implies a critique; it identifies the intellectual capacity and the means "of judging", "of judgement", "for judging", and of being "able to discern".[13] The intellectual roots of critical[14] thinking are as ancient as its etymology, traceable, ultimately, to the teaching practice and vision of Socrates[15] 2,500 years ago who discovered by a method of probing questioning that people could not rationally justify their confident claims to knowledge.

Definitions

Traditionally, critical thinking has been variously defined as follows:

"The process of actively and skillfully conceptualizing, applying, analyzing, synthesizing, and evaluating information to reach an answer or conclusion"[16]

"Disciplined thinking that is clear, rational, open-minded, and informed by evidence"[16]

"Purposeful, self-regulatory judgment which results in interpretation, analysis, evaluation, and inference, as well as explanation of the evidential, conceptual, methodological, criteriological, or contextual considerations upon which that judgment is based"[17]

"Includes a commitment to using reason in the formulation of our beliefs"[18]

The skill and propensity to engage in an activity with reflective scepticism (McPeck, 1981)[19]

Thinking about one's thinking in a manner designed to organize and clarify, raise the efficiency of, and recognize errors and biases in one's own thinking. Critical thinking is not 'hard' thinking nor is it directed at solving problems (other than 'improving' one's own thinking). Critical thinking is inward-directed with the intent of maximizing the rationality of the thinker. One does not use critical thinking to solve problems—one uses critical thinking to improve one's process of thinking.[20]

"An appraisal based on careful analytical evaluation"[21]

"Critical thinking is a type of thinking pattern that requires people to be reflective, and pay attention to decision-making which guides their beliefs and actions. Critical thinking allows people to deduct with more logic, to process sophisticated information and to look at various sides of issues, so that they can produce more solid conclusions."[22]

Critical thinking has seven critical features: being inquisitive and curious, being open-minded to different sides, being able to think systematically, being analytical, being persistent to truth, being confident about critical thinking itself, and lastly, being mature [23]

Although critical thinking could be defined in several different ways, there is a general agreement in its key component—the desire to reach for a satisfactory result, and this should be achieved by rational thinking and result-driven manner. Halpern thinks that critical thinking firstly involves learned abilities such as problem-solving, calculation and successful probability application. It also includes a tendency to engage the thinking process. In recent times, Stanovich believed that modern IQ test could hardly measure the ability of critical thinking.[24]

Contemporary critical thinking scholars have expanded these traditional definitions to include qualities, concepts, and processes such as creativity, imagination, discovery, reflection, empathy, connecting knowing, feminist theory, subjectivity, ambiguity, and inconclusiveness. Some definitions of critical thinking exclude these subjective practices.[25][16]

According to Ennis, “Critical thinking is the intellectually disciplined process of actively and skillfully conceptualizing, applying, analyzing, synthesizing, and/or evaluating information gathered from, or generated by, observation, experience, reflection, reasoning, or communication, as a guide to belief and action.” [26] This definition Ennis provided is highly agreed by Harvey Siegel,[27] Peter Facione,[23] and Deanna Kuhn.[28]

According to the definition by Ennis, critical thinking requires a lot of attention and brain function. When critical thinking approach toward education it will help the students brain to be more function-able and understand texts differently.

Critical thinking can be specifically identified into many different portions, different fields of student requires different types of critical thinking. Critical thinking provides more angles and perspectives upon the same material,

Logic and rationality
Main article: Logic and rationality

The ability to reason logically is a fundamental skill of rational agents, hence the study of the form of correct argumentation is relevant to the study of critical thinking. It is, therefore, linked to the field of logic, which is concerned with the analysis of arguments, including the appraisal of their correctness or incorrectness.[29] Another interpretation holds that in the field of epistemology, critical thinking is considered as the logically correct thinking, which allows the differentiation between the logically true and the logically false statements.[30]

"First wave" logical thinking consists of understanding the connections between two concepts or points in thought. It follows a philosophy where the thinker is removed from the train of thought, while the connections and its analysis are devoid of any bias. Kerry S. Walters describes this ideology in his essay Beyond Logicism in Critical Thinking as follows: "A logistic approach to critical thinking conveys the message to students that thinking is legitimate only when it conforms to the procedures of informal (and, to a lesser extent, formal) logic and that the good thinker necessarily aims for styles of examination and appraisal that are analytical, abstract, universal, and objective. This model of thinking has become so entrenched in conventional academic wisdom that many educators accept it as canon".[31] The adoption of these principals parallels themselves with the increasing reliance on a quantitative understanding of the world.

In the ‘second wave’ of critical thinking, as defined by Walters,[31] many authors moved away from the logocentric mode of critical thinking that the ‘first wave’ privileged, especially in institutions of higher learning. Scholars began to take a more inclusive view of what constituted critical thinking, but rationality and logic are still widely accepted in many circles as the primary examples of critical thinking. Walters summarizes logicism as "the unwarranted assumption that good thinking is reducible to logical thinking".[31]

Deduction, abduction and induction
Argument terminology used in logic
Main article: logical reasoning

There are three types of logical reasoning. Informally, two kinds of logical reasoning can be distinguished in addition to formal deduction, which are induction and abduction.

Deduction

Deduction is the conclusion drawn from the structure of an argument's premises, by use of rules of inference formally those of propositional calculus. e.g., X is human and all humans have a face, so X has a face. 

Induction

Induction is drawing a conclusion from a pattern that is guaranteed by the strictness of the structure to which it applies.

e.g. The sum of even integers is even.

Let {\displaystyle x,y,z\in \mathbb {Z} } then {\displaystyle 2x,2y,2z} are even by definition. {\displaystyle 2x+2y=2(x+y)=2z}, which is even; so summing two even numbers results in an even number.

Abduction

Abduction is drawing a conclusion using a heuristic that is likely, but not inevitable given some foreknowledge. e.g., I observe sheep in a field, and they appear white from my viewing angle, so sheep are white. Contrast with the deductive statement:"Some sheep are white on at least one side." 

Critical thinking and rationality

Kerry S. Walters, an emeritus philosophy professor from Gettysburg College, argues that rationality demands more than just logical or traditional methods of problem solving and analysis or what he calls the "calculus of justification" but also considers "cognitive acts such as imagination, conceptual creativity, intuition and insight" (p. 63). These "functions" are focused on discovery, on more abstract processes instead of linear, rules-based approaches to problem-solving. The linear and non-sequential mind must both be engaged in the rational mind.[31]

The ability to critically analyze an argument – to dissect structure and components, thesis and reasons – is essential. But so is the ability to be flexible and consider non-traditional alternatives and perspectives. These complementary functions are what allow for critical thinking to be a practice encompassing imagination and intuition in cooperation with traditional modes of deductive inquiry.[31]

Functions

The list of core critical thinking skills includes observation, interpretation, analysis, inference, evaluation, explanation, and metacognition. According to Reynolds (2011), an individual or group engaged in a strong way of critical thinking gives due consideration to establish for instance:[32]

Evidence through reality

Context skills to isolate the problem from context
Relevant criteria for making the judgment well
Applicable methods or techniques for forming the judgment
Applicable theoretical constructs for understanding the problem and the question at hand

In addition to possessing strong critical-thinking skills, one must be disposed to engage problems and decisions using those skills. Critical thinking employs not only logic but broad intellectual criteria such as clarity, credibility, accuracy, precision, relevance, depth, breadth, significance, and fairness.[33]

Critical thinking calls for the ability to:

Recognize problems, to find workable means for meeting those problems
Understand the importance of prioritization and order of precedence in problem-solving
Gather and marshal pertinent (relevant) information
Recognize unstated assumptions and values
Comprehend and use language with accuracy, clarity, and discernment
Interpret data, to appraise evidence and evaluate arguments
Recognize the existence (or non-existence) of logical relationships between propositions
Draw warranted conclusions and generalizations
Put to test the conclusions and generalizations at which one arrives
Reconstruct one's patterns of beliefs on the basis of wider experience
Render accurate judgments about specific things and qualities in everyday life

In sum:

"A persistent effort to examine any belief or supposed form of knowledge in the light of the evidence that supports or refutes it and the further conclusions to which it tends."[34]

Habits or Traits of the Mind

The habits of mind that characterize a person strongly disposed toward critical thinking include a desire to follow reason and evidence wherever they may lead, a systematic approach to problem solving, inquisitiveness, even-handedness, and confidence in reasoning.[35]

According to a definition analysis by Kompf & Bond (2001), critical thinking involves problem solving, decision making, metacognition,[36] rationality, rational thinking, reasoning, knowledge, intelligence and also a moral component such as reflective thinking. Critical thinkers therefore need to have reached a level of maturity in their development, possess a certain attitude as well as a set of taught skills.

There is a postulation by some writers that the tendencies from habits of mind should be thought as virtues to demonstrate the characteristics of a critical thinker.[37] These intellectual virtues are ethical qualities that encourage motivation to think in particular ways towards specific circumstances. However, these virtues have also been criticized by skeptics, who argue that there is lacking evidence for this specific mental basis that are causative to critical thinking.[38]

Research in Critical Thinking

Edward M. Glaser proposed that the ability to think critically involves three elements:[34]
An attitude of being disposed to consider in a thoughtful way the problems and subjects that come within the range of one's experiences

Knowledge of the methods of logical inquiry and reasoning

Some skill in applying those methods.

Educational programs aimed at developing critical thinking in children and adult learners, individually or in group problem solving and decision making contexts, continue to address these same three central elements.

The Critical Thinking project at Human Science Lab, London, is involved in the scientific study of all major educational systems in prevalence today to assess how the systems are working to promote or impede critical thinking.[39]

Contemporary cognitive psychology regards human reasoning as a complex process that is both reactive and reflective.[40] This presents a problem which is detailed as a division of a critical mind in juxtaposition to sensory data and memory.

The psychological theory disposes of the absolute nature of the rational mind, in reference to conditions, abstract problems and discursive limitations. Where the relationship between critical thinking skills and critical thinking dispositions is an empirical question, the ability to attain causal domination exists, for which Socrates was known to be largely disposed against as the practice of Sophistry. Accounting for a measure of "critical thinking dispositions" is the California Measure of Mental Motivation[41] and the California Critical Thinking Dispositions Inventory.[42] The Critical Thinking Toolkit is an alternative measure that examines student beliefs and attitudes about critical thinking[43]

Education

John Dewey is one of many educational leaders who recognized that a curriculum aimed at building thinking skills would benefit the individual learner, the community, and the entire democracy.[44]

Critical thinking is significant in the learning process of internalization, in the construction of basic ideas, principles, and theories inherent in content. And critical thinking is significant in the learning process of application, whereby those ideas, principles, and theories are implemented effectively as they become relevant in learners' lives.

Each discipline adapts its use of critical thinking concepts and principles. The core concepts are always there, but they are embedded in subject-specific content. For students to learn content, intellectual engagement is crucial. All students must do their own thinking, their own construction of knowledge. Good teachers recognize this and therefore focus on the questions, readings, activities that stimulate the mind to take ownership of key concepts and principles underlying the subject.

Historically, the teaching of critical thinking focused only on logical procedures such as formal and informal logic. This emphasized to students that good thinking is equivalent to logical thinking. However, a second wave of critical thinking, urges educators to value conventional techniques, meanwhile expanding what it means to be a critical thinker. 

In 1994, Kerry Walters[45] compiled a conglomeration of sources surpassing this logical restriction to include many different authors’ research regarding connected knowing, empathy, gender-sensitive ideals, collaboration, world views, intellectual autonomy, morality and enlightenment. These concepts invite students to incorporate their own perspectives and experiences into their thinking.

In the English and Welsh school systems, Critical Thinking is offered as a subject that 16- to 18-year-olds can take as an A-Level. Under the OCR exam board, students can sit two exam papers for the AS: "Credibility of Evidence" and "Assessing and Developing Argument". The full Advanced GCE is now available: in addition to the two AS units, candidates sit the two papers "Resolution of Dilemmas" and "Critical Reasoning". 

The A-level tests candidates on their ability to think critically about, and analyze, arguments on their deductive or inductive validity, as well as producing their own arguments. It also tests their ability to analyze certain related topics such as credibility and ethical decision-making. However, due to its comparative lack of subject content, many universities do not accept it as a main A-level for admissions.[46] 

Nevertheless, the AS is often useful in developing reasoning skills, and the full Advanced GCE is useful for degree courses in politics, philosophy, history or theology, providing the skills required for critical analysis that are useful, for example, in biblical study.

There used to also be an Advanced Extension Award offered in Critical Thinking in the UK, open to any A-level student regardless of whether they have the Critical Thinking A-level. Cambridge International Examinations have an A-level in Thinking Skills.[47]

From 2008, Assessment and Qualifications Alliance has also been offering an A-level Critical Thinking specification.[48] OCR exam board have also modified theirs for 2008. Many examinations for university entrance set by universities, on top of A-level examinations, also include a critical thinking component, such as the LNAT, the UKCAT, the BioMedical Admissions Test and the Thinking Skills Assessment.

In Qatar, critical thinking was offered by AL-Bairaq—an outreach, non-traditional educational program that targets high school students and focuses on a curriculum based on STEM fields. The idea behind AL-Bairaq is to offer high school students the opportunity to connect with the research environment in the Center for Advanced Materials (CAM) at Qatar University. Faculty members train and mentor the students and help develop and enhance their critical thinking, problem-solving, and teamwork skills.[49]

Effectiveness

In 1995, a meta-analysis of the literature on teaching effectiveness in higher education was undertaken.[50] The study noted concerns from higher education, politicians, and business that higher education was failing to meet society's requirements for well-educated citizens. It concluded that although faculty may aspire to develop students' thinking skills, in practice they have tended to aim at facts and concepts utilizing lowest levels of cognition, rather than developing intellect or values.

In a more recent meta-analysis, researchers reviewed 341 quasi- or true-experimental studies, all of which used some form of standardized critical thinking measure to assess the outcome variable.[51] The authors describe the various methodological approaches and attempt to categorize the differing assessment tools, which include standardized tests (and second-source measures), tests developed by teachers, tests developed by researchers, and tests developed by teachers who also serve the role as the researcher

The results emphasized the need for exposing students to real-world problems and the importance of encouraging open dialogue within a supportive environment. Effective strategies for teaching critical thinking are thought to be possible in a wide variety of educational settings.[51] One attempt to assess the humanities' role in teaching critical thinking and reducing belief in pseudoscientific claims was made at North Carolina State University. Some success was noted and the researchers emphasized the value of the humanities in providing the skills to evaluate current events and qualitative data in context.[52]

Scott Lilienfeld notes that there is some evidence to suggest that basic critical thinking skills might be successfully taught to children at a younger age than previously thought.[53]

Importance in academics

Critical thinking is an important element of all professional fields and academic disciplines (by referencing their respective sets of permissible questions, evidence sources, criteria, etc.). Within the framework of scientific skepticism, the process of critical thinking involves the careful acquisition and interpretation of information and use of it to reach a well-justified conclusion. 

The concepts and principles of critical thinking can be applied to any context or case but only by reflecting upon the nature of that application. Critical thinking forms, therefore, a system of related, and overlapping, modes of thought such as anthropological thinking, sociological thinking, historical thinking, political thinking, psychological thinking, philosophical thinking, mathematical thinking, chemical thinking, biological thinking, ecological thinking, legal thinking, ethical thinking, musical thinking, thinking like a painter, sculptor, engineer, business person, etc. In other words, though critical thinking principles are universal, their application to disciplines requires a process of reflective contextualization. Psychology offerings, for example, have included courses such as Critical Thinking about the Paranormal, in which students are subjected to a series of cold readings and tested on their belief of the "psychic", who is eventually announced to be a fake.[54]

Critical thinking is considered important in the academic fields for enabling one to analyze, evaluate, explain, and restructure thinking, thereby ensuring the act of thinking without false belief. However, even with knowledge of the methods of logical inquiry and reasoning, mistakes occur, and due to a thinker's inability to apply the methodology consistently, and because of overruling character traits such as egocentrism

Critical thinking includes identification of prejudice, bias, propaganda, self-deception, distortion, misinformation, etc.[55] Given research in cognitive psychology, some educators believe that schools should focus on teaching their students critical thinking skills and cultivation of intellectual traits.[56]

Critical thinking skills can be used to help nurses during the assessment process. Through the use of critical thinking, nurses can question, evaluate, and reconstruct the nursing care process by challenging the established theory and practice. Critical thinking skills can help nurses problem solve, reflect, and make a conclusive decision about the current situation they face. Critical thinking creates "new possibilities for the development of the nursing knowledge."[57] 

Due to the sociocultural, environmental, and political issues that are affecting healthcare delivery, it would be helpful to embody new techniques in nursing. Nurses can also engage their critical thinking skills through the Socratic method of dialogue and reflection. This practice standard is even part of some regulatory organizations such as the College of Nurses of Ontario – Professional Standards for Continuing Competencies (2006).[58] It requires nurses to engage in Reflective Practice and keep records of this continued professional development for possible review by the College.

Critical thinking is also considered important for human rights education for toleration. The Declaration of Principles on Tolerance adopted by UNESCO in 1995 affirms that "education for tolerance could aim at countering factors that lead to fear and exclusion of others, and could help young people to develop capacities for independent judgement, critical thinking and ethical reasoning."[59]

Critical Thinking in Computer-mediated Communication

The advent and rising popularity of online courses have prompted some to ask if computer-mediated communication (CMC) promotes, hinders, or has no effect on the amount and quality of critical thinking in a course (relative to face-to-face communication). There is some evidence to suggest a fourth, more nuanced possibility: that CMC may promote some aspects of critical thinking but hinder others. 

For example, Guiller et al. (2008)[60] found that, relative to face-to-face discourse, online discourse featured more justifications, while face-to-face discourse featured more instances of students expanding on what others had said. The increase in justifications may be due to the asynchronous nature of online discussions, while the increase in expanding comments may be due to the spontaneity of ‘real-time’ discussion. 

Newman et al. (1995)[61] showed similar differential effects. They found that while CMC boasted more important statements and linking of ideas, it lacked novelty. The authors suggest that this may be due to difficulties participating in a brainstorming-style activity in an asynchronous environment. Rather, the asynchrony may promote users to put forth “considered, thought out contributions.”

Researchers assessing critical thinking in online discussion forums often employ a technique called Content Analysis,[61][60] where the text of online discourse (or the transcription of face-to-face discourse) is systematically coded for different kinds of statements relating to critical thinking. 

For example, a statement might be coded as “Discuss ambiguities to clear them up” or “Welcoming outside knowledge” as positive indicators of critical thinking. Conversely, statements reflecting poor critical thinking may be labeled as “Sticking to prejudice or assumptions” or “Squashing attempts to bring in outside knowledge.” The frequency of these codes in CMC and face-to-face discourse can be compared to draw conclusions about the quality of critical thinking.

Searching for evidence of critical thinking in discourse has roots in a definition of critical thinking put forth by Kuhn (1991),[62] which emphasizes the social nature of discussion and knowledge construction. There is limited research on the role of social experience in critical thinking development, but there is some evidence to suggest it is an important factor. For example, research has shown that 3- to 4-year-old children can discern, to some extent, the differential creditability[63] and expertise[64] of individuals. 

Further evidence for the impact of social experience on the development of critical thinking skills comes from work that found that 6- to 7-year-olds from China have similar levels of skepticism to 10- and 11-year-olds in the United States.[65] If the development of critical thinking skills was solely due to maturation, it is unlikely we would see such dramatic differences across cultures.

USING QUAKER QUERY IN CHILD RAISING



TEACHING CHILDREN TO QUESTION EVERYONE AND EVERYTHING CAN LEAD TO VERY INTERESTING PLACES






WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN PHILOSOPHY AND PROPAGANDA



WHAT QUESTION WOULD YOU ASK? 

 




End

Quakers Use Queries For Reflection And As A Spiritual Exercise Or Strategy For Going Deeper, Increasing Awareness, Consciousness, Empathy, And Compassion - Quaker Figures In History Who Used Quaker Query - Critical Thinking, Or Socratic Questioning - Socrates Taught Interrogative Soul Method
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